College Papers

1. the given IP address. It does this

1.   
ARP –  Address Resolution Protocol: ARP, in the
most basic sense, converts IP addresses to MAC addresses. When data arrives at
a gateway, ARP is used to find the MAC address of the recipient using the given
IP address. It does this by first searching the address in the “ARP cache.” If
the IP address is mapped to a physical address on this table, ARP will alert
the gateway and the data will be sent to the correct machine. If the address is
absent, then the protocol will send out a “request packet” throughout the
network to search for the correct IP. If the machine is found, the data will be
relayed, and the cache will be updated. ARP operates on the Network layer of
the OSI model, or the Internet layer of the TCP/IP model. Cisco makes the claim
that ARP classifies as both a second (Data Link) and third (Network) layer
protocol because IP addressing occurs at both levels. However, this
classification is subject to debate. There are several other versions of ARP as
well. Inverse ARP is used by Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networks in which
the protocol builds and ATM map and sends unicast packets to servers at the
other side of a connection. Reverse ARP, unsurprisingly, operates in the
reverse of ARP. RARP will request an IP address from a server after providing a
MAC address. This protocol is typically used by workstations with no permanent storage
and is overshadowed by DHCP.

a.   
https://techterms.com/definition/arp

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b.   
https://www.lifewire.com/address-resolution-protocol-817941

c.   
https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/ios-xml/ios/ipaddr_arp/configuration/15-mt/arp-15-mt-book/arp-config-arp.html

d.   
https://learningnetwork.cisco.com/thread/36117

 

2.   
IPv6 –
Internet Protocol Version 6: IPv6 is the latest version of the Internet
Protocol (IP), designed to address the shortcomings of IPv4. IPv4 is an older
protocol used to distribute IP addresses. Each address was 32 bits long,
allowing for potentially 232 unique addresses. As the internet grew
it became clear that all the addresses would eventually be exhausted, and so
the Internet Engineering Task Force created IPv6 to replace it. IPv6 utilizes
128 bit addresses, which allow for 3.4×1038 addresses. IPv6 (as well
as IPv4) operates at the Network layer of the OSI model, or the Internet layer
of the TCP/IP model. The Network layer contains hardware like routers and
switches, and establishes network communication between devices.

a.   
https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb727113.aspx

b.   
https://www.pcmag.com/encyclopedia/term/45412/ipv6

c.   
https://techterms.com/definition/ipv6

d.   
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IPv4_address_exhaustion

 

3.   
IPSec –
Internet Protocol Security: IPSec is the framework used to secure IP
communications. It does this through two services: Authentication Header
provides authentication and checks for changes during transition, and
Encapsulating Security Payload performs authentication as well as encryption.
IPSec operates at the Internet layer of the TCP/IP model and provides security
for nearly all other protocols in that model. Among others, IPSec defends
against data corruption and theft, credentials theft, and attacks from
untrusted computers and networks.

a.   
https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc776369(v=ws.10).aspx

b.   
https://f5.com/glossary/internet-protocol-security-ipsec

c.   
https://www.techopedia.com/definition/24842/internet-protocol-security-ipsec

 

4.   
BGP – Border
Gateway Protocol: BGP is a routing protocol that exchanges routing
information for the Global Internet. Furthermore, it is the protocol that
provides connections between Internet Service Providers (ISP). BGP is utilized
on a much larger scale than is typically relevant for an end user. The protocol
routes based on paths and policies and boasts incredible scalability when
compared to other routing protocols. For this reason, ISPs use it to connect to
one another, and some very large corporations use it when they need to connect through
multiple ISPs. BGP can be found on the Application layer of the TCP/IP suite,
or the Transport layer of the OSI model. The BGP as described is sometimes
referred to as the Exterior (or External) Border Gateway Protocol (EBGP). When
BGP exchanges routes within an Autonomous Network, then it is called Interior
Border Gate Protocol (IBGP)

a.   
http://docwiki.cisco.com/wiki/Border_Gateway_Protocol

b.   
https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/ios-nx-os-software/border-gateway-protocol-bgp/index.html

c.   
http://www.enterprisenetworkingplanet.com/netsp/article.php/3615896/Networking-101-Understanding-BGP-Routing.htm

d.   
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Border_Gateway_Protocol

 

5.   
UDP – User
Datagram Protocol: UDP is an unreliable connectionless protocol
that sends and receives packets with very little functions for error checking
or recovery. UDP operates at the Transport layer of both the TCP/IP and OSI models.
UDP is typically defined as a contrast to TCP. TCP provides error recovery
mechanisms for the user to ensure integrity, at the cost of increased date
overhead and time delay. UDP, on the other hand, does no perform error checking
and does not request acknowledgement from the recipient. The result is that
packets may appear out of order of go missing entirely. The benefit of this
method is that it is far faster and more efficient, and thus is well suited for
real-time communications like VoIP, video streaming, or online gaming.

a.   
https://techterms.com/definition/udp

b.   
https://www.lifewire.com/user-datagram-protocol-817976

c.   
http://www.linfo.org/udp.html

 

6.   
POP3 – Post
Office Protocol (Version 3): POP3 is an internet standard used to remotely
retrieve email through TCP/IP. POP3 allows a local client to collect their
email from a server and store it locally. However, it is exclusively used for
retrieving email. The protocol for transferring mail between servers is the
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol). POP3 is considered to be mostly obsolete now,
having been replaced by the Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP). IMAP does
not download all of a client’s messages automatically, and instead allows them
to read the message directly from the service. This is usually faster and more
efficient, with the added benefit of allowing synchronization across multiple
devices. POP3 and IMAP both operate on the Application Layer of the TCP/IP
suite.

a.   
https://www.lifewire.com/what-is-pop-post-office-protocol-1171121

b.   
https://techterms.com/definition/pop3

c.   
https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc781974(v=ws.10).aspx

d.   
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Post_Office_Protocol

e.   
https://support.office.com/en-us/article/What-are-IMAP-and-POP-ca2c5799-49f9-4079-aefe-ddca85d5b1c9

 

7.   
HTTPS –
HyperText Transport Protocol Secure: HTTP is an adaptation of HTTP, with the
addition of a Secure Socket Layer (SSL) for increased security. HTTP is the
communication protocol that connects web servers over the internet. When a user
tries to connect to a website through a browser, they submit an HTTP request to
the server. In turn, the server sends a response message and provides resources
to the client. However, this method is very vulnerable to attacks like the
man-in-the-middle attack, so HTTPS has become the new standard. Using SSL
encryption, the data sent back and forth between the client and server become
illegible to anyone eavesdropping. HTTP and HTTPS are both on the Application
layer of the TCP/IP model, or the Sessions layer of the OSI model.

a.   
https://techterms.com/definition/https

b.   
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypertext_Transfer_Protocol

c.   
https://www.pcmag.com/encyclopedia/term/44501/http

 

8.   
DHCP – Dynamic
Host Configuration Protocol: DHCP is a protocol used to dynamically assign
IP addresses, as well as other configurations, to devices on a network. DHCP
performs this task automatically rather than needing to be managed by network
admins. Furthermore, DHCP scales very well, allowing it to be implemented on
small and large networks alike. Beyond IP addresses, DHCP will also configure a
device’s default gateway, DNS server info, and subnet mask. When a device first
connects to a network, it broadcasts a DHCP query requesting this information.
In return, a DHCP server will respond to perform the necessary configurations. This
protocol operates on the Application layer of TCP/IP, or the Sessions layer of
OSI.

a.   
https://www.lifewire.com/what-is-dhcp-2625848

b.   
http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/definition/DHCP

c.   
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dynamic_Host_Configuration_Protocol

d.   
https://www.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/en/ssw_aix_72/com.ibm.aix.networkcomm/tcpip_dhcp.htm

e.   
https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/previous-versions/windows/it-pro/windows-server-2008-R2-and-2008/dd145320(v=ws.10)

 

9.   
SLIP – Serial
Line Internet Protocol: SLIP is an outdated Internet link protocol for
connection through serial ports or modems. It provides neither address nor
error control, and as a result has been rendered almost completely obsolete.
When transmitting data, SLIP sends the data frame followed by a single END
transmission character. SLIP is preferred on microcontrollers for this reason,
as there is very little overhead. For practically all other applications,
however, SLIP has been replaced by the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP). PPP is
preferred for data transmission over the internet, as it features datagram
encapsulation, a protocol for communication configuration and testing, and
integration control for the protocols of upper layers. SLIP and PPP can both be
found on the Data Link layer of the OSI model, or the Network Interface Layer
of the TCP/IP model.

a.   
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serial_Line_Internet_Protocol

b.   
http://ccm.net/contents/282-ppp-and-slip-protocols

c.   
https://www.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/ssw_ibm_i_72/rzaiy/rzaiyprotocol.htm

 

10.  ICMP –
Internet Control Message Protocol:  ICMP is a support protocol for the TCP/IP
suite. ICMP’s main function is to report errors to the source IP address when
there is an issue with packet delivery. When such an error occurs, the protocol
will generate a message to send back, usually explaining what went wrong. ICMP
is also capable of giving routing suggestions in the case of unresponsive hops.
An ICMP header is composed of: The major type identifying the message, the
minor code revealing more info about the type, and the checksum for error
detection. ICMPv6 is a more recent version of the protocol designed as an
integral function of IPv6. It features a number of new options and features,
like the Neighbor Discover Protocol (NDP) and the Multicast Listener Discovery
Protocol (MLD). ICMP operates on the network layer of the OSI model and the
Internet layer of the TCP/IP model.

a.   
https://techterms.com/definition/icmp

b.   
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_Control_Message_Protocol

c.   
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_Control_Message_Protocol_version_6

d.   
http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/definition/ICMP