Chapter 1

THE

PROBLEM

Background of the Study

Teaching as a profession has been universally recognized and

accepted as a science and a form of ability art. A greater look at its effect

on the population being taught, points for a greater emphasis on the

methodologies and various ways of imparting knowledge to the young,

(

Salandanan 2007).

Information Technology as the science of

managing and processing information using

computers has greatly advanced in the last decade in both developed and

developing countries. Educational

Innovations which refers to as

the process of making changes to something established by introducing something

new to educational process has greatly changed the way people learn,

communicate and do business. Previous empirical studies world over have

highlighted the roles of a computer as an instructional tool in the classroom,

particularly in enriching the teaching and learning of Mathematics (Mubichakani,

2012; Wanjala, 2005). However, it is surprising that most schools are yet to

integrate its use in the teaching and learning of the subject.

Burgos National high school is a public secondary school

located at barangay New Poblacion, Burgos, La Union. It was created with the enactment

of Municipal Resolution no. 29 on December

1966. Despite of its 51 years existence, most teachers are still using the

traditional way of

imparting

knowledge to its students. This situation motivated the researcher to develop a

study entitled ” ICT in Mathematics

instruction among grade 10 learners and junior high school mathematics teachers

in the public secondary school of

Burgos, Schools Division of La Union.

In relation to the field of study as being emphasize, this

study is delimited to the following considerations: The extent of adequacy

of ICT instructional materials? Types of

ICT use in Mathematics

Instruction, Capability of Teachers to

use technology in Mathematics Instruction, Constraints encountered by teachers

in using technology in mathematics instruction and the possible solutions to

solve or minimize constraints encountered by teachers in using technology in

mathematics instruction in the public secondary schools of Burgos District,

Division of La Union.

Society is in constant change, and the secondary school

program must keep pace. For too many years, the secondary Mathematics program

was static. Our contemporary world demands a kind of mathematical knowledge

that is very different from that require in the past.

ICT capability involves technical and

cognitive proficiency to access, use, develop, create and communicate

information appropriately, using ICT tools.

Learners demonstrate this capability by applying technology purposefully

to solve problems, analyses and exchange

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information, develop ideas, create

models and control devices. They are discriminating in their use of information

and ICT tools, and systematic in reviewing and evaluating the contribution that

ICT can make to their work as it progresses. ICT capability is much broader

than acquiring a set of technical competencies in software applications,

although clearly these are important. ICT capability involves the appropriate

selection, use and evaluation of ICT. In essence, learners need to know what

ICT is available, when to use it and why it is appropriate for the task.

Knowledge and basic skills compose a large part of learning

in mathematics. Technology is ubiquitous. It affects the lives of the students

and teachers in dozens of ways every day. As a digital natives, our

students needs teachers who are willing

to step beyond the way they were taught into a classroom bustling with

possibilities for transmitting, developing, and assessing skills. Students

wants to explore and express their understanding of new content by connecting

it to real world tools that they know and love. And be mindful that some

digital natives know everything and more about, getting beyond goggle and

assessing the validity and suitability of individual websites.

According to Heddens, James W. ( 1988, sixth edition ), the popularity of serious questions

concerning the teaching of mathematics. Obviously, technology has had a major

impact outside the classroom.

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However, is the use of technology appropriate inside the

classroom? Preparing learner`s to function successfully in the real world is a

primary goal of mathematics instruction. Since technology is part of the real

world, school system and teachers have an obligation to teach learners` how to

use the technology.

In the

twentieth century schools encounter a number of difficulties including

integration of information and communication technologies into the teaching and

learning scenario, education curriculum and change in methods in pursuit of

developing learner lifelong learning skills. Strategy of Implementation of

Information and Communication Technologies in the Lithuanian Education (2001)

emphasizes the main causes that lead to the necessity to utilize ICT in

education: changes in economy, social and education science areas.

The growing placement of microcomputers in classroom is

supported by school administrators, teachers and parents. If we make

assumptions that technology is a viable tool of mathematics instruction, when

should computer be introduce into the instructional program?

Salandanan ( 2006 ), says that Technology assisted

strategies are aimed at providing valuable skills through instructional devices

that can be viewed and heard, updated information such as recent discoveries

and communicated are learned through pictures, films, tapes and television. Integration which is an Act of

combining into an integral whole, for example in this context it is the application of technology into teaching and

learning to assist, enhance and extend student knowledge. Integration of information

technologies into the system of education was

discussed

by a number of authors such as Hargreaves (1994), Lawton (1994), Lai (2001),

Ringstaff (1995), Murray and Campbell (2000), Billowes (1999), and others. It

was emphasized that the change in teaching and learning while integrating

information and communication technologies is a long process which requires a

lot of resources and depends on every individual teacher, thus creating a

number of barriers and difficulties. One

of the most important trends in the present education system is the change and

restructuration in the teaching/learning process integrating technological

innovations. The main restructuration element of the change of the teaching

practice.

New

teaching/learning methods incorporate problem-solving learning, cooperative

learning, orientation to real goals and the change in the teacher roles

(Masters, Yelland 2002). Computer software which is the collection of computer programs

and related data that provides the instructions

telling what to do.

The

highest barrier to integration of information and communication technologies

into the teaching/learning process is the change as such. Schools can play a

very important role in integrating ICT into the system of education. It is

worth mentioning that not only ministries should tale how the process of

integration should be organized, but also schools could give feedback on

difficulties they are facing integrating ICT into curriculum and suggesting

what could be done differently.

A school

can achieve good result by simply providing ample time in the area of ICT by

devoting teacher`s activities outside the class. During these events teachers

should be acquainted with innovations in information and communication technology

area, and should be explained in detail how to use these innovations and

integrate them into the process of teaching/learning. ICT advent to the school

conducts the need of reorganization of the teaching and learning and even of school

management and structure it begins process of change. Fullan (1993) asserts

that change is a complex phenomenon, whereas the teaching and learning change

is even a more complex and complicated process and presents several principles

which, according to him, lead to the successful change process.

In these principles Fullan (1999)

emphasizes that change is a complicated process, because it is necessary to

change power structures and because a great number of people participate in

this process, including teachers, principals, school managers, learners and

their families.

Change

cannot be required from the people who lead school or from the government;

however, support of the latter is particularly important Fullan (1999) also

notices that during the change the problems arise and conflicts emerge and that

it is necessary to learn from them, not to look at them as a negative

phenomenon. Change requires cooperation, however, this cooperation has to allow

for and foster the difference in opinions and approaches. According to him, the

whole process of change has to be flexible and its efficiency depends on the plan

of change, if it is designed and how specific it is.

There

are, certainly, a number of barriers, including teacher development and change

process, to successful integration of technologies into the teaching/learning

process. Until these barriers exist, the learners will not be able to take full

advantage of the opportunities provided by information and communication

technologies.

Therefore, continued development,

training, and mentorship are essential for an effective teacher’s development

program.

Conceptual

Framework of the Study

The

term ICT as utilized to education, are those technologies include computers,

the Internet, broadcasting technologies (radio and

television), and telephony that can

facilitate not only delivery of instruction, but also learning processes

itself.

(Gulbahar 2007) stress that ICT

requires up-to-date hardware and software. Using up-to-date hardware and

software resources is a key feature in the diffusion of technology but a rare

experience in educational institutions. High-speed internet connection is

another prerequisite for integrating ICT into the teaching-learning situation.

But unfortunately internet access is very poor. The use of ICT in the mathematics classroom has

long been a topic for consideration by mathematics educators. Various form of

ICT tools use in mathematics include: portables, graphic calculators and

computerized graphing, specialized software, programmable toys or floor robots,

spreadsheets and databases. Studies have shown that a range of portable devices

exists which allow pupils to collect data, and manipulate it using spreadsheets

and databases for work in numeracy. Some portable equipment also enables the

study of math to move out of the classroom and to incorporate fieldwork

investigations (Moseley and Higgins 1999).

Many researchers have

pointed out that a school’s ICT vision is essential to effective ICT

integration (Anderson & Dexter, 2000). Bennett (1996, p. 60) stressed the

importance of a “well-defined mission that describes technology’s place in

education”. In line with this idea, Ertmer (1999) wrote, “A vision gives us a

place to start, a goal to reach for, as well as a compass along the way” (p.

54). Also, Means and Olson (1997) recommend that teachers and schools must

develop a vision before they make substantial investments in hardware and

software. In other words, users of technology must have a fundamental belief in

the value of innovation or the innovation is doomed to failure. Teachers must

have opportunities to study, discern, redirect, and confer their practice.

The

rapid evolution of information and communication technology (ICT) and Innovations of new values though

solutions that meet new requirements and inarticulate needs is changing the

face of education and making information universal. Understanding the upshot of

the ICT in the education system, the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) and

Department of Education provided most of the schools with computer units and

peripherals. Some of the teachers in these schools have undergone ICT

trainings.

ICT has become an imperative tool in

enhancing the learners` learning

aptitude for them to connect amid the content of the teacher tips and

technology applications which encourage them to go into and expand their

creativity with the use of technology. It should also expand into the knowledge

of the community, for their deeper understanding, engagement and involvement in

realizing the importance of technology.

ICT which refers to a range of technological tools and resources used to

communicate, and to create, to disseminate, to store and manage information. Technologies do not refer to only the

computers, but also broadly to Internet, broadcasting technologies (such as

radio and television), telephones (including mobile phones), CDs and DVDs.

However,

this new technology could not take the place of the educators in the classroom.

It is not a solution for all educational problems either (Wang & Woo,

2007). ICT is certainly an effective tool that permits us to link various

learning communities together in new and different ways (Tailor, 2000). It

provides great possibilities for effective communication between teachers and students

in varying and innovative ways.

Teacher which referred

to

as person who instills knowledge, attitudes and skills have been found to be major forward planner of

the use of new technologies in instructional settings. The teachers’ beliefs

about teaching and learning with ICT are central to integration. Mwelese and

Wanjala (2014) indicate that to be successful in computer use and integration,

the role of the student, and their role as teachers in enhancing themselves

towards Technology based instructions for more efficient, effective and evocative

mathematics instruction. Thus, the

successful use of ICT into classroom

largely depends on teachers’ attitudes and belief concerning the whole process.

Indeed, it has been conjure up that thought towards computers affect teachers’

use of computers in the classroom and the likelihood of them benefiting from training

(Kluever, et al, 1994).

This study wants to find out on the adequacy of ICT instructional Material, the capability of

teachers in using ICT, constraints in the use of ICT in teaching – learning

processes and provide suggested solutions on the constraints encountered in the

use of ICT in mathematics instruction at the same time it enhance researchers to employs an adept

fusion or hybrid technologies anchored on an artistic and systematic creation

of activities intended to bring the 21st century learners to a

noteworthy and unforgettable learning experiences.

TheDepEd higher ups formulated policies and programs,

initiated projects for them to realized the importance of technology in the

educational world . This has also been done in Indonesia, Malaysia, Uzbekistan

and Vietnam. In Asia and the pacific, including emerging countries, teachers in

primary, secondary and tertiary levels are being trained in the use of ICT in

education with varying degree of scope. Most of the training programs carry

general objectives aimed at developing awareness, knowledge and skills in

either the use of computers in teaching and learning (IPS, 2003

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Figure 1

Paradigm

of the Study

( Input )

( Process )

( Output )

. ICT instructional

materials and

capability of teachers

to use technology in

grade 10 mathematics

instruction

. Constraints

encountered by

teachers using ICT in grade 10

mathematics instruction

.

Descriptive

Survey

.

Participant

Observation

.Questionnaire

.

Statistical

treatment

and

analysis of

data

.

Effective grade 10

mathematics

instruction using

adequate ICT tools

and materials by

well trained

teachers

.

Design strategic

plan in solving

constraints in the

use of ICT in

mathematics

instruction

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Statement of the Problem

The researcher aim to develop ICT in Mathematics Instructions among grade

10 Learners in the public secondary schools of Burgos, Schools Division of La

Union that will identify, determine, suggest and develop particular technologies

to fit the needs and desire of people moving around the educational world.

Specifically, it seeks to answer the following questions:

1.

What

is the extent of adequacy of ICT

instructional materials?

2.

What

is the level of capability of teachers to use technology in mathematics

instructions?

3.

What

is the degree of seriousness of constraints encountered by teachers in the use

of technology in mathematics instructions?

4.

What

is the degree of effectiveness of solutions to solve or minimize

the constraints encountered by teachers in the

use of technology

in

mathematics instructions?

Null Hypotheses

The null

hypotheses of this research were the following:

1.

There

is no significant difference between the perception on the adequacy of ICT instructional materials.

2.

There

is no significant difference between the perception on the capability of teachers to use technology in

mathematics instructions.

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3.

There

is no significant difference between perception on the constraints encountered

by teachers in the use of technology in mathematics instructions.

4.

There

is no significant difference between perception on the effectiveness of solutions to solve or

minimize the constraints encountered by

teachers in the use of technology in

mathematics instructions.