College Papers

Cognitive for daily event. Humans mind need to

Cognitive science is a set of discipline that shared between psychology, philosophy, computer science, linguistics and social science (Simon, 2010). Cognitive science is interdisciplinary science that draws on many fields (as psychology, artificial intelligence, linguistics, and philosophy) in developing theories about human perception, thinking and also learning things (Goldstein, 2011). Cognition means to know, or it refers all the information that related to knowledge. Cognition can also be defined as the ability to process information that include cognitive processes, like attention, perception, memory, decision making and others. New knowledge formed when the cognitive functions work together, and it show that humans mind can be related to cognitive science.Perception is a process by which individual recognize and interpreted into meaningful information. Perception can be process when we receive stimuli from our senses. The important of perception, it help us to acknowledge our surrounding (Goldstein, 2011).  Sensory perception is one of the proof that human mind can be related to perception because when we perceive something, we will interpret and take it as objective or real. By interpret information from surrounding it mean humans mind is thinking about perception (Claus, 2014). Attention is the ability to concentrate on stimuli or location. Attention is basic cognitive function for daily event. Humans mind need to give attention on whatever they are doing. For example, we walked through the street. There are signs, car, sounds, people cross over and others. If human mind cannot give attention to the important event, no information that can be digest because there are a lot of distraction. In fact, we need to pay attention to be able to get the stimuli and reach our sense and turn it into perception (Goldstein, 2011).Memory divided into short-term memory, only retains information for brief period for 15-30 seconds and long-term memory keep memory in lengthy period and can hold large amount of information (Goldstein, 2011). Language also related to human mind because language is needed to express our thoughts and feelings through spoken word. we use language to communicate and share information. Without language our thought cannot be shared, it shows that language is very related to human mind. Language is one of the great interest in cognitive science field that concerned as we are with the issues of learning and representation in knowledge in the brain (Sobel, 2012).Human mind performs a lot of function in daily life. Sometimes you had mixed thought and confuses. The relevance to understand humans mind that related to cognitive science is when we understand human mind better we can learn more about cognitive science (Will, 2013). For example, by understanding human mind, human can build a robot that copy human attitude. DISCUSSIONWhat is attention? According to Yantis (1998), attention is the allocating of limited processing capacity. Attention must be allocated which mean attention is normally a choice. In other word, you have the power to decide what information to receive your cognitive energy (Yantis, 1998). The attention system of the brain is anatomically separate from the data processing systems that carry out operations on specific inputs even when attention is oriented elsewhere. Attention is performed by a network of anatomical areas. It is neither the property of a single center, nor a general function of the brain operating (Mesulam, 1981; Rizzolatti, Gentilucci, & Matelli, 1985). Posner (1988) said that the areas that involved in attention have contrasting functions, and these specific computations can be specified in cognitive terms.Selective attention is the process of focusing on an object in the environment for a certain period. Attention is a limited resource, so selective attention allows us to tune out unimportant details and focus on what really matters.Visual orienting is defined as the foveation of a stimulus or overt. Foveating a stimulus improves efficiency of processing targets terms of acuity, but it is also possible to change the priority given a stimulus by attending to its location covertly without any change in eye or head position (Posner, 1988). Similarly, if people are asked to move their eyes to a target, an improvement in efficiency at the target location begins well before the eyes move (Remington, 1980). This covert shift of attention appears to function as a way of guiding the eye to an appropriate area of the visual field (Fischer & Breitmeyer, 1987; Posner & Cohen, 1984).Divided attention is an ability of the brain to attend to two or more different stimuli at the same time, and respond to the multiple demands from the surroundings. Divided attention is a type of simultaneous attention that allows us to process different information sources and successfully carry out multiple tasks at a time. This cognitive skill is very important, as it allows us to be more efficient in our daily lives. Our ability to attend to multiple stimuli and do various tasks at a time does have its limits. When you divide your attention, the efficiency with which you do these actions is decreased, and you will certainly perform poorly. Interference is the term used to describe when a person has a tough time attending to two stimuli at a time. For example, if a customer asks about the sales when paying at the cashier, the cashier must scan and bag the items while thinking about the answer to the question. We believe that attention at McDonald has direct application towards improving human potentials. We can observe it through the workers who work at the McDonald. They are not only working and getting rewards but at the same time, they can also improving their potentials and skills.Obviously we can see that attention at McDonald can be seen when the worker is packing the stuffs into the paper bag. They do not turn their head frequently towards the paper bag and foods that they need to pack. They had expanded their attention so that he can still also grab things that are out of his visual’s field. This action is the same as when we played video games. We can estimate where is the enemy who is out of our field of vision even though when we are focusing on the hero. Here we show, by contrast, that action-video-game playing is capable of altering a range of visual skills (Green & Bavelier, 2003). Thus, attention at McDonald can improve the workers’ potential in visualizing.On the other hand, we can also observe the attention at McDonald which is applied by the worker at the dine-in counter. As the worker is taking order from his customer, there is also another customer at the counter next to him. Here, he needs to select his attention. He only focus on the customer at his counter and ignore others. The way he did his work by focusing only on one things is a way better than the result from the multitasking which is applied at the drive through station. Assigning multiple tasks to a worker may be problematic for reasons different from those suggested by the previous literature (Buser & Peter, 2012). Hence, when the workers select their attention and avoiding multitasking, they can improve their cognitive abilities and upgrading their focusing level.  We also believe that Attention at McDonald has direct application toward improving human potentials which is human creativity. If one, for instance an employer want to select the best novelist, artist, chief executive officer or even a cashier they most likely want someone who is creative. According to Plucker and Renzulli (1999), it is undeniable that today many CEOs are selected not for their pleasant personalities because pleasant personalities is hard to be perceived when they may have to fire 20% employee of a company and also not for their memory skill and learning skill as they or employee use subordinates or computers to remember the details for them. What is most highly deems is the employee creative vision on how to turn the company around and be successful in their working life. This shows that human creativity can improve human potentials in many aspects especially in life career.        Creativity appears to be the most elusive enigma of the human brain. It may relatively easy characteristic the act of creation in simple verbal term for example as the competition and cooperation of different creative ideas in the form of other parameters (Desrochers, 2001). For instance, McDonald has high creativity when it comes to marketing. The use of demographic segmentation with age parameter by McDonald shows that human creativity helps improving human potentials in business. The main target of McDonald is children, youth and young urban family. McDonald successfully make the children into a consideration as a target buyers because children are more easily to attract their attention by using toys and most of them like it. The human creativity is used by McDonald in creating attractive and interesting toys and delicious meals which is including today’s youth who prefer such places for their entertainment while the urban families select McDonald on various occasions like birthday party is due to the attractive marketing and creative situation applied in a McDonald restaurant. According to Knyazeva and Haken (1999), creative intuition and imagination in general can be considered in the light of synergy as a process of self-organization and the self-completion of visual, mental images, notions and thought. For example such as the completion of visual, mental images, notions and thought. McDonald has been aggressive with their advertising strategy by making rich and interactive elements like attractive colors and pictures of food as appetite stimulants. McDonald promoting their products using brochures, online advertisement, online websites as well as mobile apps such as online gaming and provide a staple of its campaigns and advertisement.The specific issue, concept, idea or technology that we have chosen is attention at McDonalds. As we all know earlier, McDonald is one of world’s leading global fast food-services at every edge of the world. So, what does make McDonald being so popular than the other fast food services globally? What applications that we can use to contribute towards the development of Cognitive Science Practices (CSP) in Malaysia? So, the applications in attention at McDonald that we can use to contribute towards the development of Cognitive Sciences Practices in Malaysia are McDonald has a very good advertisement that can make people attract to them, have a very good marketing to promote either their old or new products to the community and they also able to find any inch of opportunity to widespread their products to the world.  First, the contribution of attention at McDonald towards development CSP is they make a very good advertisement to promote our products. For examples of advertisement are using brochures, online advertisements, fliers, web sites and others. This is because one of the vital tools to attract our customers by using an attractive and good advertisement. We need to show to our potential customers why our business is always peoples’ number one choice and why they must choose us rather than our competitors. McDonald always has a very cool and unique advertisement that makes people will pay attention to it. In addition, the advertisement is a very influential to show our peculiar and awesomeness business so, we must keep in mind that we are not the only one who do something or deliver the products but be the one and only to promote the products. Hence, we need to make a very unique and amazing advertisement to get peoples’ attention towards our business or company.Next, the contribution of attention at McDonald towards development CSP they managed to make a very good marketing to promote our products either old or new to the community. This is because marketing is the heart of the business success and most of the aspect of business is depending on our successful marketing. The whole marketing is involving the way we advertise our products, the relationship between publics, the way we are promoting our products and our sales product. Thus, to get a very good marketing, first thing first is we need to find our potential buyers and widespread our products or services to them. If the products become more demanding and getting to the level of our prospect, it will increase our chances to attract our consumer to purchase our products. The more awareness that we got, the more the consumers spread their word to another people. Thus, our sales will extremely increase, as more the word spreading to people. Hence, without applying a great marketing strategy and without any sales, the company would not succeed. Thus, we need to make a good marketing to attract people attention to our products. Then, the contribution of attention at McDonald towards development CSP is they able to find any inch of opportunity to widespread their products to the world. For example, they manage to get their online advertisement to promote of their products to the most demanding and popular application of service-like-taxi, which is Grab. This shows that McDonalds always find so many opportunities to increase their sales. Thus, we need to imitate their strategies, so it can catapult our business or company ahead and make us more efficient in all kinds of different situations such as when we are meeting with people, when we are discussing any issues or when we are developing our critical ideas. We need to always have our alternatives way to success and always shrug off our setbacks. This is because no matter what job that we did, there will have so many obstacles and difficulties are going to happen to us along the way to our ultimate success. Thus, we need to have our early preparations and grabbing more experiences so that we will be able to find our way out to the tough situations. Hence, we need to find as many as opportunities to makes our products well-known to the world. . CONCLUSIONBased on the elaboration presented, this shows that McDonald is a very good role model of attention which every entrepreneur should follows their footsteps. As we all know that Attention is a part of cognitive science. Attention is something that allocated our limited processing capacity in our mind. So there are four types of attention which selective, divided, overt and last but not least, covert attention. In this discussion, we only focusing on selective attention and divided attention only. As for selective attention, it is focusing one thing at one time while for divided attention is focusing more than one thing at one time. We concluded that attention is playing an important role to develop human potentials especially at McDonald. We already observed that the way the workers work at the best global fast food-service, the way they remembering the orders, the way they making their products such as burgers and fries and others really need attention in order to satisfy their customers. McDonald. Most of them are using selective attention and divided attention when they taking the orders from their customers. The human potential that we could recognise are improve the visualizing, the cognitive abilities, upgrades their focusing level and so forth.We also believed that attention at McDonald really contributing the development of CSP in Malaysia. McDonald also shows that they are very good at making an awesome and attractive advertisement, making a very strategized and organized marketing to increase their sales and they should able to find more alternatives way to spreading their products globally. Every entrepreneur should take extra initiatives to follow their footsteps accordingly to success in any department, company or business in Malaysia. As a result, McDonald is the most attractive place to go.