College Papers

DNA that everyone physically look different. DNA, more

DNA is what makes everyone in the world different from one another. There are endless possibilities and genes to make different combinations for every organism. It’s because of this that everyone physically look different. DNA, more specifically genetics, explain why some people have certain traits. How they work together tells how an organism will look. The reason some people may resemble a family member is because they share the same kind of DNA. Many people have a misunderstanding of who discovered DNA. The answer isn’t as easy as saying a name. Technically, a man named Johannes Friedrich Miescher was the first person to discover DNA. He first noticed it while he was conducting an experiment, when he noticed that he didn’t know what the substance he saw was in a cell. This was DNA. This all took place in the 1860s, and Johannes didn’t have the equipment he needed at the time to further conclude what the purpose of DNA was. Today we know that DNA holds our genetic information, but back then people were confident that proteins did this. In the 1870s, Johannes published his findings. Gregor Mendel was a scientist that discovered specifics of genetics in the late 1850s. His findings included discovering recessive and dominant traits and how knowing that genes come in pairs. His ideas weren’t acknowledged until they were brought up again in the early 1900s. A man named Walther Flemming was looking at chromosomes when he came across his own discoveries. With Mendel’s research, he was able to see that chromosomes were responsible for transfer of DNA. He also helped contribute to answering questions in mitosis, such as the specific jobs these chromosomes carry out and how they divide. Walter Sutton and Theodor Boveri believed that all offspring had the same genetic information from their parents because of chromosomes. This went together with the Mendel’s discovery from years before. Theodor Boveri came up with the idea of how exactly chromosomes work to transfer traits to offspring. Together they were both able to conclude that chromosomes carry genetic information inside them and they get passed down to offspring, which occurs in meiosis. James Watson and Francis Crick were two people that played a part in what DNA looks like. They worked together in the University of Cambridge in an attempt to come up with a model that best represented what DNA looks like. They got most of their research from a scientist named Rosalind Franklin. She used X-ray crystallography, which is a used to identify a molecule’s structure. Together they were all able to figure out that DNA looks like, which is like a spiral. Cells greatly depend on DNA, and they serve many purposes. One of these purposes is that DNA carries all of our genetic material. This information gets passed down to the offsprings from both parents during meiosis. This is where half of the information from both parents together make one cell with a complete set. This is how the results of DNA tests can be viewed because the DNA would be the same. DNA is a complicated molecule to understand, and it’s organized in a way that makes this possible, so without being able to store genetic information, and since no other molecule can do this, then none of this would be able to pass down to offsprings. DNA also has the ability to make a copy of itself. This has to happen for mitosis to occur. If cells can’t perform mitosis then they won’t be able to divide and make more cells. DNA is also partly responsible for telling the cell what proteins should be made, and what job they should do. It helps make more cells for different organs. This happens constantly, so without DNA the cell would eventually die because it wouldn’t know what to do after a period of time. All organisms have DNA, and without it nothing would be able to function properly.