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EDL 696A-001

Race, Neoliberalism, and Education










Neoliberalism on Education and Race

Reena Joseph





very design of neoliberal principles is a direct attack on democracy.”



Neoliberalism is a complex subject especially
when we think about class, race, gender, and education. The World Was II
negatively affected many countries around the world, neoliberalism took shape
to revive the world economy by supporting free trade, competition among
entrepreneurs and globalization.  Neoliberalism
is more than an ideology in fact it is a totality which effects all aspects of
people’s lives, including the government, policies, economy, global relations,
race, class and education. Apart from individual freedom, neoliberalism brought
in some positive changes which includes market innovations, competition, better
variety of products with cheaper price tag. Neoliberalism enhanced
globalization, for example, consumer traders and entrepreneurs have gained
tremendous power in the global market, such as free trade that eliminates
tariffs to benefit free flow of goods from one country to another, to advance the
overall comfort and security of the people.  The government provides social safety net for
the poor people that comes from the taxes paid by the wealthy to supports
welfare for all, which includes, unemployment benefits, public healthcare so
that it overall benefits the poor people to not fall below poverty line. The
philosophy of neoliberalism does not support this practice and reduces tax from
wealthy people.  Neoliberalism, when
viewed through critical theoretical lens, focuses on school choices and
competition in the education system so that it serves the interests of those in
the upper social stratification. It is essential to note that different
ethnicities and race go through different obstacle to educational achievement.  So, how does neoliberalism play out when we
think of education and race? The main of discussion in this paper will be on the
relationship between race, neoliberalism and education and its influence on race
and education. Our weekly class reading will be explored and quoted to support
this papers argument.

The relationship between Neoliberalism, race and education

The purpose of education is to educate
children equally who have goals and aspirations in life to successfully learn
and grow as an educated and a critically minded individual and thoughtful
citizen, they will in turn make the world a better and most importantly a safe place
to live and grow in. The importance to educate developed after the World War
II, education was considered a public good and everyone was give the right to
education no matter from which ethnicity, race, class, and gender people
belonged to. Chubb & Moe (1988, 1064) state
“……the key differences between public and private environments—and
thus between public and private schools—derive from their characteristic
methods of social control: the public schools are subordinates in a hierarchic
system of democratic politics, whereas private schools are largely autonomous
actors “controlled” by the market.” 
The education system is fractured by neoliberalism creating segregation,
division and resistance. Therefore, education has not brought openness, on the
contrary it has increased the gap between rich and poor. Marketization,
competition and for-profit universities are common elements at higher education
level.” (Miller, Andrew B, & Whitford,2016.
pp. 136).  Neoliberalism started to
emerge in the early 80’s which gradually effected the school systems through
deregulation, that allowed schools to have more choice through charter schools
and private schools, eventually this lead to competition and inequality among
students.  For example, instead of collaborating
and continuing to have equal access to education for all, schools started to compete
for resources which eventually lead to segregation of class and race. Likewise,
in one of our class reading, Hole, noted “…that the neoliberal turn
originated in the postwar struggles to revitalize a dwindling agricultural and
industrial southern economy and to maintain school segregation after the Brown
v. Board of Education.” (Hole 2012). In addition,
the readings from Gloria Ladson-Billings, who talks about separate schools and the
impact of the achievement gap in terms of educational achievements and funds
allocation in schools that effects students who belong to different race,
ethnic and socioeconomic background. “The funding disparities that
currently exist between schools serving white students and those serving
students of color are not recent phenomena. Separate schooling always allows
for differential funding. In present-day dollars, the funding disparities
between urban schools and their suburban counterparts present a telling story
about the value we place on the education of different groups of
students.” (Ladson-Billings, 2006).

Schools also increasing became standardized
in the measurement of student’s ability through the rise of standardized
testing. Given the school choices, schools favor students who perform well on
standardized admissions tests and who have high grade point averages (GPAs)
from secondary school. Furthermore, it negatively effects the bright and
creative students who come from low socio-economic status (SES), since the
assessments determine the success level of the student. Furthermore, Au (2011)
states that “(B)y reducing students to numbers, standardized testing creates
the capacity to view students as things, as quantities apart from human
qualities” (Au, 2011, p. 37). Therefor we can
say that it is not the students who get to decide their school choice, but it
is the schools that chooses the students. Besides the students the people who
are most affected are teachers. With the increase in standardization of the
curriculum, the teachers have no choice to change the curriculum to make
teaching more creative that meets the students creative and intellectual
levels. Neoliberalism also effects the power to explore new pedagogy. In a
school system the teacher is considered successful or survives if

he/she shows an increase in test score of her students.  This form of system mostly effects the
children who come to schools to learn and explore new concepts and subjects are
often taught from a uniform curriculum which leads to competition and lack of
creativity, which causes stress in the young minds and lives. The students are
powerless they are trapped in the uniform curriculum, the parents and students
just follow what is offered, they are not challenged which ultimately leads to
drop outs in huge numbers. In the reading from Stitzlein
& Smith (2016). “Teacher turnover produces instability within
schools, communities, and teaching workforces. This is especially true of
charter schools, which experience higher turnover rates that traditional public
schools” (pp.51).  Neoliberalism has
really destructed and negatively impacted the education system. 

As stated by Bonilla-Silva in her article, “Racism is the product
of racial domination projects (e.g., colonialism, slavery, labor migration,
etc.), and once this form of social organization emerged in human history, it
became embedded in societies.” (Bonilla-Silva,
2001; Robinson, 2000).   From one of our class readings, Brown & Delissovoy (2011) quotes Bonilla-Silva’s
argument which suggests that “race and racism are both systemic and institutional,
as opposed to be an outcome of other forms of oppression (such as that based on
class) or an overt and irrational act of racist practices.” Bonilla-Silva (2006) “…the way racism is structural
and systemic in all racialized social systems the placement of people in racial
categories involves some form of hierarchy that produces definite social
relations between the races. The race placed in the superior position tends to
receive greater economic remuneration and access to better occupations and/or
prospects in the labor market, occupies a primary position in the political
system…” (469–470). 

Besides our class reading, I would also like
to connect how race and education plays out in Michelle
Alexander (2010) book: The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of
Colorblindness. “millions of black people who were arrested for very minor
crimes, for example, for the possession of drugs, and some for no fault at
all.” (Alexander, 2010). It is crucial for the economy’s growth and progress
that the children from different background, color and ethnicity should be
educated to represent confidently a skilled workforce globally.  Like the prison systems Alexander adds that
the, “people challenge the injustices found within the education systems
regarding race to push for reform. The worst schools can be found in the poor
black communities that lack federal funding which creates a vicious cycle where
many students receive less educational achievement or even struggle to graduate
high school and get recirculated into the prison system.” (Alexander,
2010).  “Without a quality education
it is hard to find success in today’s world. Schools are not preparing and
failing students giving them no choice but to live lives of crime. Once
students are expelled, they are left without educational services and are
forced to drop out of school.” (Alexander, 2010).  “After dropping out, young adolescents
are more susceptible to participating in illegal activity and getting in
trouble with law enforcement. Instead of enforcing policies that lead to kids
going down the wrong path, schools should enforce policies that will benefit
students in the long run.” (Alexander, 2010).

universities have become money minting businesses and the student are
commodities. The education system is no longer seen as a social good with
essential values and ethics, this practice has negatively affected human race,
especially poor children and women. Because they belong to different social and
cultural background and especially who are not privileged. To further draw from
our weekly readings, Lipman in her book states that “to bring education, along
with other public sectors, in line with the goals of capital accumulation and
managerial governance and administration” (Lipman,
2011, p. 14). The politics and neoliberal ideology of the current education
climate in the United States, which is more focused on politician and money-making
ideologies than focusing on fixing the broken education system

or catering to the poor children who are not
well served when it comes to their intellectual curiosity and development.  



Kolderie, Ted has suggested, “that the basic issue is not
how to improve the educational system; it is how to develop a system that seeks
improvement.” (Liberman, M, 1998). Equal
opportunity should be given to African American, Latino to share decision-making
power in terms of policies, regarding what is policy is good for them and for
the economy. If every citizen of the United States has the same constitutional
rights, then there shouldn’t be a racial issue in the justice system. The
justice system needs to stop seeing all black individuals as “criminals”, and
the education system needs to offer equal educational opportunities to all
public schools. Schools should always aim for continuous improvement, so they
can provide the best quality and equal education to all kinds students and an
overall better educational outcome that can change the values of the education










Alexander,M (2010). The New Jim Crow: Mass
Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness (New York: The New Press, 2010),
ISBN 978-1-59558-103-7.

Au, W. (2011). Teaching under the new
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curriculum. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 43(1), 25-45.

Brown v. Board of Education 347 U.S. 483 (19)

Brown, A.L. & Delissovoy, N. (2011).
Economies of racism: grounding education policy research in the complex
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Split Screen Strategy: How to Turn Education Into a Self-Improving System

Ladson-Billings. (2006). From the Achievement
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Robinson, Cedric J. 2000 1983. Black
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