College Papers

For worked hard to build grassroots organizations and

For the last
163 years, the president of the United States has either been a Democrat or
Republican. Although the first presidential election didn’t have any political
parties.                                                                                    
Our founders soon after abhorred the spirit of factionalism that underlay
formation of political parties, yet America in the 1790’s saw parties form
anyhow- and right there in the Washington Cabinet, with the forceful Alexander
Hamilton leading the Federalist party and the equally able Thomas Jefferson
leading the Democratic-Republican party with James Madison as one of his
leading collaborators. Leaders such as Thomas Jefferson and George Washington
hoped that their new government (Thanks to Alexander Hamilton) founded on the
Constitution itself. As late as 1850, the two-party system began to
disintegrate in response to massive foreign immigration. By 1856 the Whig party
had collapsed and been replaced by a new sectional party, the Republicans. After
the new United States Congress completed its first task of creating The Bill of
Rights, it turned its attention to the issue of financing the new government.
President George Washington appointed Alexander Hamilton as the Treasury
Secretary, and Hamilton took it upon himself to develop an economic structure
for the United States that would give the public confidence in the governments
financial affairs.                                                                                                                                              Democrats

 The Democratic Party of the United
States is the oldest voter-based political party in the world, tracing its
heritage back to the anti-Federalists of the 1790s. During the Second Party
System from 1832 to the mid-1850s, under Presidents Andrew Jackson, Martin Van
Buren and James K. Polk, the Democrats usually bested the opposition Whig Party
by narrow margins. Both parties worked hard to build grassroots organizations
and maximize the turnout of voters, which often reached 80 percent or 90
percent. Both parties used patronage extensively to finance their operations,
which included emerging big cities political machines as well as national
networks of newspapers. The Democratic Party was a proponent for slave-owners
across the country, urban workers and Caucasian immigrants.

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From 1860 to 1932 in the era of the Civil War to the Great
Depression, the opposing Republican Party, organized in the mid-1850s from the
ruins of the Whig Party and some other smaller splinter groups, was dominant in
presidential politics. The Democrats elected only two Presidents to four terms
of office for 72 years: Grover Cleveland (in 1884 and 1892) and Woodrow Wilson (in
1912 and 1916). Over the same period, the Democrats proved more competitive
with the Republicans in Congressional politics, enjoying House of
Representatives majorities (as in the 65th Congress) in 15 of the 36 Congresses
elected, although only in five of these did they form the majority in the
Senate. The party was split between the Burbon Democrats, representing Eastern
business interests; and the agrarian elements comprising poor farmers in the
South and West. The agrarian element, marching behind the slogan of “free
silver” (i.e. in favor of inflation), captured the party in 1896 and
nominated the “Great Commoner” William Jennings Brian in 1896, 1900
and 1908, though he lost every time. Both Bryan and Wilson were leaders of the Progressive
Movement (1890s–1920s).

Starting with 32nd President Franklin D. Roosevelt in
1932 during the Great Depression, the party dominated the Fifth Party System,
with its liberal/progressive policies and programs with the New Deal collation to
combat the emergency bank closings and the continuing financial depression
since the famous Wall Street Crash of 1929 and later going into the crises
leading up to the Second World War of 1939/1941 to 1945. The Democrats and the
Democratic Party finally lost the White Wouse and control of the executive
branch of government only after Roosevelt’s death in April 1945 near the end of
the war and after the continuing post-war administration of Roosevelt’s third Vice
President Harry S. Truman, former Senator from Missouri (for 1945 to 1953,
elections of 1944 and the “stunner” of 1948). A new Republican Party
President was only elected later in the following decade of the early 1950s
with the losses by two-time nominee, the Governor of Illinois Adlai Stevenson (grandson
of the former Vice President with the same name of the1980s) to the very
popular war hero and commanding general in World War II, General Dwight D.
Eisenhower (in 1952 and 1956).

With two brief interruptions
since the Great Depression and World War II eras, the Democrats with unusually
large majorities for over four decades, controlled the lower house of the Congress
in the House of Representatives from 1930 until 1994 and the U.S. Senate for
most of that same period, electing the Speaker of the House and the
Representatives’ majority leader’s/committee chairs along with the upper house
of the Senate’s majority leaders and committee chairmen. Important Democratic
progressive/liberal leaders included Presidents: 33rd – Harry S Truman of Missouri
(1945–1953) and 36th –Lydon B. Johnson of Texas(1963–1969); as well as the
earlier Kennedy brothers of 35th President John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts (1961–1963);
Senators Robert F. Kennedy of New York and Senator Edward M. Kennedy of Massachusetts
who carried the flag for modern American liberalism. Since the presidential
election of 1976, Democrats have won five out of the last ten presidential
elections, winning in the presidential elections of 1976 (with 39th President Jimmy
Carter of Georgia, 1977–1981), 1992 and 1996 (with 42nd President Bill Clinton of
Arkansas, 1993–2001) and 2008 and 2012 (with 44th President Barak Obama of
Illinois, 2009–2017).                                                                                                                                                                         Republicans

The Democratic Party, also commonly called the GOP(for “Grand Old Party”), is one of the world’s oldest extant political parties. It is the second oldest existing political party in The United
States after its primary rival, the Democratic
Party. It emerged in 1854 to combat the Kansas-Nebraska Act, an act that dissolved the terms of the Missouri Compromiseand allowed slave or free status to be decided in the
territories by popular sovereignty. The party had almost no presence in the Southern United Sates, but by 1858 in the North it had enlisted former Whigs and former Free Soil
democrats to form majorities in nearly
every Northern state with its election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860 and its success in guiding the Union to victory and abolishing slavery, the party came to dominate the national
political scene until 1932. The Republican Party was based on northern white Protestants, businessmen, small business owners, professional factory workers, farmers
and African Americans. It was pro-business, supporting banks, the

gold standard, railroads and high
tariffs to protect factory workers and grow industry faster. Under William McKinleyand Theodore Roosevelt, it emphasized an expansive foreign policy.

The GOP lost its majorities
during the Great Depression (1929–1940).
Instead, the Democrats under Franklin D. Roosevelt
formed a winning wad the New Deal Coalition , which was dominant from 1932 through 1964. That
coalition collapsed in the mid-1960s, partly because of white Southern Democrats’ disaffection with passage of the Civil Right Act of 1964. Republicans won five of the six presidential elections
from 1968 to 1988, with Ronald Reagan as the
party’s iconic conservative hero. From 1992 to 2016, the Republican candidate
has been elected to the White House in three of the seven presidential
elections.

The GOP expanded its base
throughout the South after 1968 (excepting 1976), largely due to its strength
among socially conservative white
Evangelical Protestants and traditionalist Roman Catholics. As white Democrats
in the South lost dominance of the Democratic Party once U.S. courts declare
the Democratic White Party unconstitutional, the region began taking on the two-party apparatus which characterized most of the nation. The Republican
Party’s transforming leader by 1980 was Reagan, whose conservative   policies
called for reduced government spending and regulation, lower taxes and a strong
anti-Soviet foreign policy. His influence upon the party persists, as nearly
every GOP speaker still reveres him. This includes current U.S. President
Donald Trump, who prominently utilized his own version of Reagan’s
“(Let’s) Make America Great Again” slogan during the2016 U.S Election.
Social scientists Theodore Caplow et al. argue: “The Republican party,
nationally, moved from right-center toward the center in the 1940s and 1950s,
then moved right again in the 1970s and 1980s”.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Overall                                                      From all
the way back from the late 1800’s the Democratic and Republican parties have
been on opposite sides. Every president has been either a Democrat or a
Republican. Each political parties has its strengths and weaknesses. There were
19 Republican presidents,16 Democratic,4 were Whigs, 4 were
Democratic-Republican,1 was a Federalist, and 1 had no party affiliation. When
you vote for a certain candidate to become president, there is usually lots of
arguing and protests. For example, the 2017 presidential election afterwards
there was lots of protests and violence involved. Not all elections were like
this though. Although most of the time, democrats and republicans keep to
themselves. Democrats have been around longer but, both groups are both equally
capable. Democrats as a strength have core strength and some would even die for
a democratic president. Meanwhile, a strength for Republicans, is that most
people are drawn to the religion most follow.