College Papers

Historically supported by local authorities.The inherited water and

the provision of adequate reliable and accessible supply of water has been
pivotal to the sustenance of modern cities and towns (Musemwa, 2010).Informal
settlements in Africa dates back from the colonial period where most Africans
were not allowed access to city’s residential areas. There was clear
demarcation of African of African areas and European areas. During this period
Africans who came to the city looking for job opportunities had to create
informal residents outside the Central business near their source of employment(Gutsa
et at,2013)With most African countries gaining their independence between  the 1960s and the 1970s , this led to the
spectacular growth of African cities as there was rapid population movements to
urban areas as preventative pass laws were removed(Gutsa et al ,2013).As people
were moving to the cities they began to demand better services such as clean
water and basic sanitation.u1 

water and sanitation of Zimbabwe used to be the desire of the African continent,
driven by high standards and universal access by all urban dwellers during the
colonial era. As Zimbabwe gained ,independence ,they inherited the colonial standards
for water and sanitation.Gukume(2012) adds on that these inherited colonial
standards are so high and demanding that it is almost impossible for
authorities to overlook existence of informal settlements in  urban areas let alone providing basic
services such as water and sanitation.

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the urban front particularly in Harare, the state of water supplies was
relatively good until the 1990s.Since then Harare and surrounding areas began
to experience water shortages (Musemwa, 2010).As many people moved to urban
areas in the 1990s, there was growing informal housing and informal activities
which further led to the demand for water and sanitation services in these localities.
In terms of water and sanitation supply informal settlements where rarely connected to the mains or supported by local
authorities.The inherited water and sanitation infrastructure was not upgraded
to suite the growth of urban population. With the introduction of economic structural
adjustment programs in the 1990s, this did not spare the city increasing informality
which further exerted pressure on already overstressed infrastructure.u2 

2000s saw the introduction of land reform program wherein most peri-urban farms
were converted into residential areas without services and these settlements
did not conform to standards by city of Harare bylaws(Mukonoweshuro,2014).In
2005 Zimbabwe government was experiencing economic and political crisis and the
government introduced operation Murambatsvina which was operation restore
order.This further worsened the  increase
of informal settlements and  which did
not have services and infrastructure. People were resettled and in un-serviced
areas and were forced to rely on pitlatrines and wells for drinking. The
increase in household sizes associated with operation Muramabtsvina put
pressure on existing urban water supply infrastructure areas (Country status overview,


The continued deteriorating water
and sanitation situation in recent times, as a result of increased populations
in older informal settlements and creation of new ones, suggests that informal
settlements will be transmission epicenters of future disease outbreaks
(Ministry of Water Resources, 2012). This mix of poor sanitation, contaminated
and crowded water supply, scarce drainage facilities and wanting waste disposal
mechanisms, was a catalyst for the fatal outbreaks of cholera in 2008 and
typhoid in 2010 (Brocklehurst et al., 2013

convincing .what is the point here? Independence, rapid urbanisation, higher
demand for services, development of infomal settlements.The importance of water
and Sanitation services.