College Papers

Introduction: are promoting eco-friendly construction by funding and

Energy is a basic requirement for the existence and development of human life.
Primarily, the commercial sources such as fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural
gas), hydroelectric power and nuclear power provide the energy needs of a
country. The demand for energy is growing at an alarming rate year after year. Global
energy consumption has increased from 9000Mtoe in 1990 to approximately
14000Mtoe in 2016. Buildings are major consumers of energy insofar as their
construction, operation and maintenance are concerned. Though this is not very
well quantified in India, yet there is ample scope for energy savings. The
indoor environments are becoming increasingly important for human comfort and
from health point of view. It is estimated that almost 50% of the global energy
demand is due to buildings .With the increase in standards of living, the
consumption of energy in buildings is progressively rising. The boom in
building sector is going to create further demands, resulting in greater
pressure on the energy supply situation.

 In this context, the conservation of energy in
buildings through appropriate construction, operation and maintenance practices
assume prime importance. Eco-friendly houses can be a versatile solution for
overcoming energy crisis. Various researchers have found so many methods to
construct eco-friendly houses. Globally government of major countries are
promoting eco-friendly construction by funding and conducting awareness

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 In order to promote eco-friendly construction
in India, nirmithi Kendras were established which was funded by HUDCO. Main
objective of nirmithi Kendras is to promote CEEF (cost effective eco-friendly) technology.
Dakshina Kannada nirmithi kendra is one such organisation which was established
under the national network of building centres in India on January 5 1990.  Various activities of nirmithi Kendras are:

1.     Training
for construction workers.

2.     Production
of cost effective building materials.

3.     Construction
of public, private and govt. buildings using appropriate construction

4.     Dissemination
of the technology through awareness programmes, orientation programmes, exhibition,
seminar, guest lectures etc.  


Kendra uses various technology which is quite different from conventional in
order to make houses eco-friendly as well as economical. Some of the
technologies are:

1.     Masonry

2.     Filler

3.     Exposed
laterite masonry.

4.     Ferro
cement roofing’s, interiors etc.


cycle costing (lcc) gives the total cost that the building incurs during its
entire life time. Lcc comparison of conventional building with eco-friendly
building gives a broad idea of which house is low cost. Various life cycle
phases of building are

1.     Planning

2.     Construction

3.     Utilization

4.     End
of life

each phase building incurs so many cost which may be broadly classified as

1.     Initial

2.     Maintenance

3.     Energy

4.     Salvage


of all the above cost gives us the life cycle cost of the building.


1. Matthias Buyle, Johan braet ( This paper has reviewed
the use of life cycle assessment in construction sector. Authors by their
literature survey has observed that during the lifespan of the building, it
consumes lots of natural resources as well as energy. They have also observed
that more attention is being paid to sustainable housing technologies and
construction methods. They have also highlighted the regulations made by
different countries for energy use and have also showed the resultant energy
savings by their respective regulations. They also observed that there were
various tools like environmental impact assessment (EIA), system of economic
and environmental accounting (SEEA) etc. Was developed to asses sustainability
but none of the tools gave more detailed report when compared to life cycle assessment.
LCA considers whole life cycle of building from cradle to grave.


observed that LCA can be frequently used in industry as the life cycle of
products are less when compared to whole building and also building uses many
different materials and processes. So buildings require much more assumptions
which may lead to some uncertainties. Hence life cycle assessment is
challenging task for buildings. This paper mainly focus on LCA of entire
building which includes energy consumed for construction, renovation,
demolition etc. Finally the authors concludes that , though LCA has some
limitation   LCA is still a powerful and
science based tool to assess environmental impacts , lots of research
opportunities are dwelling in the field of LCA and LCA can be best used to
assess detailed environmental impacts than other tools .


2. Reneta Schneiderova Herlova 2017:
This paper gives the role of LCC in the feasibility study of construction
project. Generally feasibility study is conducted at early phase of
construction project because more benefit can be obtained. Here author has
shaded light over the customer, according to him customer focus only on
purchase cost and tend to ignore operation cost. Author believes that by
concentrating only on the purchase cost customer may lose a holistic view of
real cost in building and it may lead to cost-inefficient solution. Paper by
virtue of its literature also says that about 80% of buildings operational cost
will be influenced by early design stage. He also debates that, both academic
research and the industry itself claim that an integrated design process,
including life cycle costing and optimization, can significantly reduce the
operating and maintenance costs. The utilization of LCC analysis allows an
early estimate of the operational saving potential and/or collection and
assessment of alternatives.

was accepted by British standard since 1992 and was incorporated in ISO in
2000. ISO states LCC as “a technique
which enables comparative cost assessments to be made over a specified period
of time, taking into account all relevant economic factors both in terms of
initial costs and future operational costs”.  Author also says that despite rapidly
developing interest in recommending the LCC approach as beneficial, the
acceptance and utilization of LCC in the construction sector remains limited.
He also points that there is a gap between theory and practice and the reason
for this gap is not clearly known.

strongly suggest feasibility study to be done before commencing the project
because the study gives an idea about whether the project is a reasonable
proposition and also its helps in determining possible alternatives . Generally
the project feasibility study is traditionally worked out through consideration
of financial issues, such as return on investment, demand and supply in the
market, risk analysis for market conditions. He advises that designers and
engineering consultants should be interviewed at the feasibility stage and
asked for a professional opinion on different alternatives and their influences
on project sustainability as a life cycle cost.

an important question arises while doing economic optimization at early stages
on how to put economic optimization into early design stage? For this he
suggest to do the LCC assessment based on applying reference values of
comparable building. Data can be obtained through regression analysis of
existing building data or an aggregation of building elements. He also suggests
that four different study periods for buildings may be used in LCC: economic,
technical, physical and utility life spans. Economic life span is an estimate
of the building’s profitable time. The technical life span is the estimated
number of years before the technology renders the building obsolete. The
physical life span is the estimated period in which it is physically possible
to use the building. Finally, the buildings utility life span is that estimated
within which the building can satisfy established performance standards.

paper also points some of the demerits of using LCC.


3. Mustafa Yolmaz, Adam Bakou ( 2015: this
paper throws light on the sustainability in construction sector. Sustainability
concept can be defined as “meeting the needs and expectations of the present
without compromising future generations to meet their own needs and
expectations”. Paper by virtue of its literature survey says that a strategic
development can be provided via balanced and consistent synergy of
environmental, economic, and social components of sustainability. Paper gives
the idea about how environmental, economic and social sustainability can be
achieved and what are all the data which are required for achieving all three
sustainability’s. Also he has discussed on how sustainability is scaled. Author
believes that is a need for international organisation which has a supranatural
authority on consumption of resources and solution of environmental problem.
Paper also gives some sustainable development strategies.

strongly portrays that sustainability in construction sector is highly
important as the construction industries consumes around 45% of the world
energy. When looked environmental effects; 23% of air pollution, 50% of
greenhouse gas production, 40% of water pollution, and 40% of solid waste in
cities are environmental problems caused by buildings.

also portrays the importance of sustainable architecture which is nothing but
ecological sustainability. It also says the importance of sustainable
construction industry at global, national scale.


4. Lukasz Nazarko 2015: this
paper concentrates on how technology assessment in construction sector can be a
strategy towards sustainability. Technology Assessment is seen in the
scientific literature as a powerful strategy of generating the appropriate technologies
necessary to achieve sustainable development. It provides information and
knowledge on technical systems and their connections with the economic, social,
political and environmental implications. Author believes this knowledge in
crucial in achieving sustainability in construction sector.  Author describes technological assessment as
a systematic attempt to foresee the consequences of introducing a particular
technology in all spheres it is likely to interact with. Technology Assessment
(TA) is treated here as a specific analytical form of Future-Oriented
Technology Analysis (FTA). FTA is an umbrella concept covering a broad range of
technology-oriented “futuring” methods and practices that include technology
forecasting, technology foresight and technology assessment.

can be done by technology forecasting, fore sighting and assessing. Paper
informs about various organisation which were established globally for
technology assessment. It has enlightens the difference between public and
private sector assessment.  

author has defined assessment through various points and has also accepted that
there is no rigid formula as to how technological assessment should be
performed. Paper has given some popular TA methods in a poppers diamond. Four key
aspects of TA methods: creativity, evidence, expertise, interaction. Presented
methods have also been divided into quantitative, qualitative and

Assessment in the Construction Sector can be applied in Material engineering
(including nanotechnology), energy, IT systems, transportation and waste etc.
Author believes that there is a relatively low number of construction-related
TA initiatives.

concludes that when conducted with methodological rigour and democratic accountability,
TA has the potential to enhance the roles of science, technology and innovation
towards achieving cleaner environment, more efficient economy and more just


5. Jian Chu 2016: this
paper gives one of the innovative method or solution through which
sustainability can be achieved in construction. This paper gives a solution
related to geo technical engineering. These include the use of bio cement as an
alternative to Portland cement for soil improvement, the use of bio-desaturation
as a method for mitigation of liquefaction hazard, the use of plastic waste to
make construction products, and the use of the NEUSpace method for land
reclamation in deep water to reduce the usage of fill materials.

solution can be applied for buildings which are constructed on soft ground and
which requires strengthen the soil. Usually cement or chemicals are used to
treat soft soils. Use of cement of chemicals is not a sustainable idea as it
consumes lots of natural resources and hence bio cement is used as an
alternative in this paper. Bio cement is made of naturally occurring
microorganisms at ambient temperature and thus requires much less energy to
produce. It is sustainable as microorganisms are abundant in nature and can be
reproduced easily at low cost. The microorganisms that are suitable for making
bio cement are non-pathogenic and environmentally friendly. Author has observed
that by using bio cement calcium content can be reduced in a noticeable amount.
And also bio cement consumes lesser time to gain strength than normal cement.

author has given so many innovative methods such as bio-desaturation for
liquefaction hazard, using of plastic waste to make construction products etc.

by using this innovative methods which does not compromises with the strength
parameters can be easily adopted to achieve sustainability. 

6. Manjesh Srivastava, Vikas Kumar 2017: this paper portrays many
different techniques to obtain sustainability in India. According to author
sustainability depend on three key parameters – —income level, size of dwelling
unit and a?ordability. This paper aims to point out the various aspects of
predestined building methodologies by highlighting the di?erent available
techniques, and the economic advantages achieved by its adoption. In a building
the walls, ?oors and roofs are the most important sections, which can be
analysed distinctively based on the needs, thus, improving the speed of
construction and reducing the construction cost. This paper also aims to cover
the use of local materials in the di?erent components of building to make them
as low cost available solutions for low income groups.

order to come up with viable solutions this paper compares the construction
cost for the traditional and low cost housing technologies and it was observed
that with the use of technology and reuse of waste material as building
material the cost of construction can be minimized to an extent. It was
observed that with if the ?ller slab can be used as an alternative to
conventional slab the cost of construction can reduce up to 25%.

have presented so many alternatives that can be adopted to achieve
sustainability and also they have specifies so many methodologies through which
cost effective houses can be built. Authors have also studied and presented the
availability of natural material in different places of India and also their
application in building houses.

such examples is filler slab, author has found that by using filler slab
technology around 16% of cement, 44% of steel can be reduced without much
compromising on strength.

have also conveyed that by using the mentioned techniques both eco-friendly and
cost effective houses can be built.


7. Ar. Manita Saxena, Ms. Shruti Sharma 2017: though
this paper doesn’t mainly concentrate on civil engineering aspect,
architectural design also plays a major role in achieving sustainability. Civil
engineering and architecture are a brother hood branches. If the technology
from both fields are combined then a drastic amount of sustainability can be

has mentioned some organisation which are still working on improving their
design along with low cost. Author says SIR Laurie baker as the Gandhi of low
cost housing, so many architects who are working on low cost house are mainly
inspired by bakers work. Author also portrays various architectural scenario
like post independent scenario, rise of vernacular architecture and current
scenario in architecture. Here authors also specifies the introduction of low
cost techniques in India.

has also mentioned some wonderful architectural techniques developed by the
modern age architects inspired by the work of SIR Laurie baker which can be
used to get a house with beautiful design as well as low cost as well as
eco-friendly .

8. Shagufta Sajid Mumtaaz Sayed ( this
paper presents the case study of LCC and financial analysis of energy
components of mass housing projects. The place of the project is the sub-urban
India. Author believes that environmental concern based design is very
essential in urban India as urban population needs and consumes most of the
energy. The paper discusses the economic feasibility of using energy
conservation green components by performing their life cycle .cost analysis
(LCCA) in large mass housing projects. A total of six components including
solar applications have been evaluated for a case project placed in Mumbai
suburban location in India. LCCA is performed from the projections of Wholesale
price indices and wholesale market price fluctuations of the commodities. Here
in this paper authors mainly concentrate on green components like solar
products etc. here author has not used a specific methodology in calculating
the LCC but he has used the method which was used by Arpke and Hutzler (2015).
Several energy components like solar photovoltaic panels, solar water heater,
solar street lights, compact fluorescent lamp, T5 fluorescent tube, BARC type
bio-methanation plants were used for the mass housing projects and were also
analysed for LCC. Buildings were designed as per BIS 2005. The operation,
maintenance cost are found for each of the energy components by consulting the
specialists in the field.  For finding
the LCC saving cost a brief literature review is studied on light and
luminaries. The LCC for a period of 25 years has been found out. To study
energy consumption pattern of middle class tenancy, a survey was conducted for
160 houses whose annual income is in the range of RS 350000-600000. The average
supply was 3.37 kWh per house. And other operation costs are also calculated
based on the requirement of the project. All other cost like replacement cost
repair cost are also calculated.

will be in the form of benefits realised by lower consumption of resources such
as energy, water etc.

LCC analysis of all the energy conservation green components in residential
mass housing complex provided payback of 11 years at 8% discounting rate.
Authors also found that all energy components except SSl gave positive NPV.
Savings of all the components were plotted on graph and was compared. Also
variation analysis was done for all the results. Finally authors conclude that
the gap between LCC of green components while doing the mass housing project
can be filled by the reports published by them. Though initial investments are
high, when compared to whole LCC green components tends to save much more than
normal components.





of literature review:  paper 1
from the literature review gives so many methods used for energy assessment of
building and it strongly says life cycle assessment is the best tool to analyse
the energy assessment of the building. Paper 2 portrays bout the importance of
LCC in construction sector. While the first two papers says about LCA and LCC,
third paper says the importance of sustainability in construction industry.
Paper 4 gives the idea about how technology plays a major role in achieving
sustainability in construction industry. Paper 5 presents one of the
geo-technical solution to achieve sustainability. Paper 6 also presents various
techniques from which sustainability as well as eco-friendly concept can be
implemented in industry. Paper 7 mainly gives credit for the architects who
have worked and who are presently working on the sustainability. Paper 7 also
show some light on the importance of architecture on achieving sustainability.
Paper 8 presents a case study where LCC has been applied to various green


Research gap: various
researches has been done on the importance of LCA, LCC and sustainability in
construction industry. Also researches has been made on method for achieving
sustainability. One such techniques is a Laurie baker’s technique. Some
researches has already been made on the cost comparison between Laurie baker
technique and conventional technique but research has not been made on the LCC
cost of the buildings which has been constructed with Laurie baker technique.


Objectives: objectives
of this study are :

1.     To
find and compare the LCC of eco-friendly house and conventional house.

2.     To
quantify the percentage difference in each stage of the building life span.

3.     To
provide the accurate data to nirmithi Kendra so that it can conduct seminars to
public and can promote eco-friendly construction.


detailed methodology is as follows:

1.     Initial
cost of the buildings can be calculated by detailed estimation of the building
by using its ground plan. Estimation is done by centre line method.

2.     Maintenance
cost for the eco-friendly house can be done by asking the house owners who are
residing in it from many years, maintenance cost of conventional building can
be obtained by PWD maintenance manual. Cost difference can hence be found.

3.     Energy
cost is one of the major factor in determining the LCC of the building. For
this assistance has been asked from the members of the Indian green building
council (IGBC) and soon energy cost will be calculated based on the method
specified by them .

4.     Salvage
value can be found out by Net present value method (NPV).

5.     By
adding all the individual costs incurred in different stages of each type of
house we can get the total LCC of the buildings. By this data cost comparison
can be made between two types of houses.