College Papers

Introductionž Eating Litter and Dungž Behavior – a)

Introductionž This is directed towards some parts of animals own anatomy or some inanimate features of animal surroundings- – Self Mutilation – Licking, Plucking and Eating of own hair, wool and feathers – Sucking and Eating of solid objects – Eating Litter and Dung – Over Eating – Polydipsia Self Mutilationž Behavior –1) Dogs may chew their limbs, other parts of body – repeat rubbing against solid objects leads to injury2) Mink – in cages remove fur from tail frequently – less frequently chew the tail- leads to shortening of tail3) Vigorous body friction or flank biting leads to self injury- in horses – animals rub their neck crests or bite at their sides -> damaging the coat -> flesh wounds -> vocalization – more common in stallions  4) Extreme self mutilation shown by monkeysž Cause – 1) Dogs, Horse and other animals- due to confinement and isolation 2) Dogs- Due to irritationž Remedy –1) Tranquilization temporarily terminates episode2) Provision of companion3) Provide extreme living conditions   Licking, Plucking and Eating of own hair, wool and feathersž Licking of their own coat- shown by dogs and catsž Young calves house in individual crates spend more time on day licking of their body parts -> result in formation of hair ball -> obstruct the rumen -> digestive problems -> even deathž Caged birds like parrots pull their own feathers ž Causes –ž  1) Early weaningž  2) Dairy Calves – housed individually Sucking and Eating of solid objectsž Recently weaned animals will suck and lick the walls and bars of their pensž Common in calves and pigsž Behavior – 1) dogs may gnaw a hard crucible material like wood 2) Seeking out and eating of wood, cloth and old bones by cattle, sheep and horse 3) Wood eating is common in confined quarters – seen in horses -> wood chewing in debarking tree trunks -> intestinal obstructionž Causes – 1) in dogs it is due to nutrient deficiency and some times lack of companion 2) in cattle and sheep it is due to lack of phosphorous ž Remedy – 1) for dogs- providing balanced diet and companions 2) for sheep and cattle- by providing phosphorous in the diet or injectables 3) for horses- by providing roughage in the feed               4) in horses – lack of roughage in the diet Eating Litter and Dungž Behavior – a) Poultry- birds usually eat the bedding material -> lead to impaction of gizzard b) Horses- important with nature of litter eaten -> moldy bedding material -> leads to colic c) Dogs and Horses sometimes eat soil(geophagia) – excess eating -> impaction of caecum and colon d) Coprophagia- oftenly seen in foals ž Causes – 1) Poultry – insufficient mineral supplement and lack of feed trough space 2) Horses – imbalanced ration, feeding at wrong times, heavy warm burden and insufficient clean hay 3) Soil eating – phosphorous an d iron deficiency 4) Coprophagia – chronic enclosure in loose boxesž Remedy – 1) Poultry – providing more trough space, and sufficient diet 2) Horses – mineral mixture block, precise time table followed – > de-worming should be done 3) Soil eating – provide proper housing and mineral mixture 4) Coprophagia – provide free space, allow for grazing Over Eatingž Observed in dogs, horses and occasionally in cattlež In coarse of bolting their food- animals may chokež In cattle excess grain consumption -> bloat -> deathRemedy-ž Make it difficult for the animals to consume food rapidlyž Avoid competitive feeding situationPolydipsiaž Behavior – 1) Polydipsia nervosa is seen in Some Horses- that are in confined stalls with water supplied adlibitum 2) some may drink upto 140 lit/day 3) some times seen in sheep- closed confinement 4) in sows noted as thin sow syndrome 5) sudden intake of abnormal water- alimentary tract to twistž Cause – – common in closely confined animals given with little exercisež Remedy – – provide better housing – provide exercise