College Papers

Paleo-Indians, the wild plants, which provided food and

Paleo-Indians, also known as the first Americans, created the ways of the Native American lifestyle. Evidence shows that the Paleo-Indians explored diverse hunting lands in large groups consisting of fifteen to fifty people. The Paleo-Indians used the system of hunting and gathering for their food. The men explored the hunting land for food, and the women cooked and took care of the children. Paleo-Indians also learned to trade ideas and goods with different groups that they encountered when they navigated to the quarries. The Paleo-Indians traded to help themselves and others live a better life, and not for profit and benefits. Archaic peoples, the new term for Native Americans living in the new environments, lived with more supplies of food. There was more food in the environment which helped the Archaic peoples live in a small area. The small area consisted of a large population because the food was found easily. These small areas were a huge help towards the Archaic people; therefore, they stayed in these villages for the year. Residents from Kampsville, Illinois, acquired large supplies of food without having to move. The women from the Archaic Indians had skills in the work of wild plants. The women created methods to favor the wild plants, which provided food and medicine.  Mesoamerica, Central America and Mexico, was where the maize agriculture was mostly practiced. Mesoamerican farmers learned diverse methods that helped the crops improve. The improvement in nutrients led the people to focus on the agriculture. Mesoamericans had large amounts of crops; therefore, they traded with groups that did not farm. The trade helped Mesoamericans gain wealth and power between the different groups. The Olmecs and other groups had greater power than smaller societies, and these powers resulted in inequality among the societies. Agriculture has played a huge role in the human’s life by providing food and medicine. The people looked for the plants that had the highest yields and largest product. This led to create tools that can help the planting of seeds and the liquidation of weeds. Farmers also had to learn to create ways that would help crops adapt to the climate of their location, and this process took a while before the plant reached its peak. Agriculture had influenced some societies to move or stay where the crops were produced the most. The Aztecs were a large empire that came from the north. The Aztecs forced out their ruler, allowing them to conquer multiple cities gaining more land towards the Gulf Coast. The Aztecs believed that the Gods were hungry during a period of drought; therefore, they thought that sacrificing people would ease the hunger. The Aztecs, like many other empires, resorted to agriculture. The Aztecs created various irrigation systems that helped the people and the crops obtain fresh water. Although the Aztecs were great conquerors, they were demolished by another empire. The Incas were another major empire that conquered societies over the Andes. The Incas had an advantage, and that was that they produced large numbers of crops that helped them trade. The Incas were able to trade different crops such as beans, maize, and potatoes. The Incas found the key to various ways of irrigation, freeze-drying, and other conservation methods. The Incas were also huge in conquering, but like the Aztecs they were demolished by Spanish trespassers.  The Hohokam culture came after the Native American people. One of the Hohokam characteristics was their improvement of irrigation canals. The improvement in these canals allowed the culture to have two crops per year. The communities were linked with canals that allowed for the plantation of crops. The Hohokam culture was mostly focused on religion, labor, and trade. The Ancestral Pueblo were mostly located in New Mexico, Utah, Arizona, and Colorado. The Ancestral Pueblo also resorted to agriculture because they never moved from their villages. The thing that characterized the Ancestral Pueblo was their ability in architecture. The villages consisted of various apartments and storage rooms that were fairly complex. The massive problem that declined the population of the Ancestral Pueblo was the drought. The drought caused the large communities to separate into smaller groups. The Native American cultures helped the Americas learn much of the Native culture and society. Diverse tribes and societies moved along the Americas leaving small parts of their culture. That is one of the reasons why America is known for its diversity. The food was obtained by fishing or gathering along much of the Pacific. The trade between different tribes helped share ideas, technological advancements, religion, and materials.  Kinship and Gender was a huge role in the diverse societies. Most Native Americans were kept together because of family ties. The regular nuclear family was never alone because they lived with other families making themselves a tribe. The male leader had multiple wives and this resulted in the break of a marriage. The male adult that the children first saw was their uncle, instead of their father. There was really no control of what happened between the families.