College Papers

Role in the world. As the human population

Role of IT in Medical Science

Submitted By

Kinza Shakeel ,

Erum Shabir ,

Saima Sajjad.


December 11, 2017









Table of Contents

Abstract                                                          4

Introduction                                                                                5

Discussion                                                                       7

Health technology                                                   7    

Historical View of
IT(Information Technology)in Medical Science                                                                                 7

Role of IT in
Studies of Medical Science                                

of Leadership in Medical Education

regards to IT                                                                                                   10


Information Technology (HIT)                    12   

prescribing                                                                                        13

Telehealth                                                                                             13

Electronic medical record
systems (EHRs, and PHRs)       13

provider order entry                                             14

Diagnosis and Treatment of Diseases       15

actionable feedback                                              15

Improving the
quality of care                                                        15

Increasing remote
patient healthcare access                            15

Conclusion                                                    17

Recommendations                                       17

Glossary                                                         18

Citations                                                         19



List of

Figure 1   Effectiveness
of Medical Education                            11

Figure 2   Survey
on IT facility in Medical Science            11

Figure 3   Keeping
Health Record                                                   14

Figure 4   Advantages
of RMP                                                         16










The field of medical
science has an important position in the world. As the human population is
increasing so is the criticality of diseases. The medical science is always
struggling to find effective treatments to widespread diseases. IT is one of an
excellent partner of medical science to help find solutions to its problems. The
field of IT (Information Technology) is viewing a massive success currently and
has a brightening future. The main reason of its success is its usability and
dire need in every other field of work. Such is its case in the field of
medical science. The use of Medical Instruments for the treatment and diagnosis
of diseases, methods of treating as many patients as possible, and the rigorous
study of IT in medical schools is a proof that medical science has a crucial
need of these new emerging technologies in order to fulfill and carry out its
functions successfully.










Many developed
countries have announced initiatives to modernize their health care systems
with investments in Health Information Technology (IT).

The goal of these
initiatives is to use technology:

Ø to
improve the health care system by reducing costs

Ø increasing
patient safety and improving quality of care.


Improving health
care is a common goal for these countries, but there are wide disparities in
the success with which nations have pursued this goal 1 (D.Castro, 2009)


In particular,
countries such as the United States have lagged behind some European nations in
the adoption of health IT, such as electronic health records. Interoperable
electronic health records are a prerequisite for a modern health care system
and the key to delivering a number of benefits to health care patients and


For example, the
computerized decision support systems used in hospitals provide patients the
most benefit when they use a complete and accurate set of patient data. These
systems can help ensure a return to the core principle of evidence-based
medicine—that patients and doctors have the best evidence available when making
a decision about treatment.


While much
attention has been paid to the degree to which nations have made progress with
investment in health IT, less attention has been paid to the level of
investment in health IT research. Yet evidence-based medicine relies on high
quality medical research. Moreover, as we enter an increasingly digital world,
the amount of health data that will be available to medical researchers will be
increasing substantially.


While past medical
researchers had only a few limited data points recorded on paper on which to
base their hypotheses, in the future researchers will have massive online
databases containing terabytes of data for their analysis. Some of the major
benefits from modernizing our health care system are expected to come from the
improvements in medical research that it will enable. For example, medical
researchers will be able to use rapid-learning health networks to determine the
effectiveness of a particular treatment for a certain population or to discover
harmful side-effects of a drug.


While some of this
research will occur in the private sector, for example through private
pharmaceutical research, public investment in this area will also be important.
Already a variety of projects offer a glimpse into the possibilities that IT
will allow for future medical research. But achieving this vision will require
substantial leadership and effort on the part of nations to overcome the
technical and social hurdles ahead.











technology is defined by the WHO (World Health Organization) as
the “application of organized knowledge and skills in the form of devices,
medicines, vaccines, procedures and systems developed to solve a health problem
and improve quality of lives”. 2Technology,
Health. (2015, March 20). Retrieved Fall, from



Historical View of IT (Information Technology) in
Medical Science

technology is enhancing medical education in many different ways. Before the
start of the Internet and the World Wide Web, computers used to store and
retrieve medical information in/from databases. In 1984, the American
Association of Medical Colleges suggested that information technology should be
an integral part of  medical schools so that
graduates can redeem information from published databases and have basic know
how of computer technology. 3 Hollander
S. Assessing and enhancing medical students’ computer skills: A two-year
experience. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association, 1999; 87: 67-73.


Information technology
provide medical students easy and effective approach to a vast variety and  greater quantity of information. Information
technology is a vital element in primary and secondary education, it was
believed that medical student’s knowledge and expectation of computer use would
grow consequently, and increasing demand of computer
skills in medical curriculum would have a great potential to impact how medical
education would be taught and seeked.


Medical students are benefitting
from information technology more in education, and this massive use can be seen
by the rapidly increasing rate of publications related to medical field in academic
conferences 4 (Aschenbrener,
2008). Information technology has strengthened the mentoring and learning in
medical education, and will continue to arise and become further involved into
all fields of the medical industry. Nowadays medical information is easily
accessible because of IT. At present , patients are using  IT to diagnose their diseases by themselves.
The internet is the best source in this aspect. The symptoms and causes of
almost every disease can be read easily over the internet. Moreover, the
patients can explore about related remedies and treatments for their diseases.
If they are unable to find out the treatment, even then they become able to
deeply discuss their issue to their doctor. Because of internet, medical
knowledge can be accessed by the people of every field. Through internet we can
also take suggestions of foreign doctors. 


From past 4 to 40 years
Information technology is used in Medical Science. World has become a global
valley, having access to information, communication technologies, and
information literacy, become extremely important for future physicians.


Role of IT in Studies of Medical Science

Information technology
plays vital role in many fields. It is also used in medical education in both
industrialized and developing countries. In most of the countries, IT has
significant impact in medical education and want to see the necessary changes
being implemented to facilitate the students.IT is used for the examination
process in medical colleges. IT is a beneficiary aid to solve the problems of
medical education. Most users were deprived of access to medical   sites which are available on the internet
because they don’t possess IT Skills. IT skills are very much important
.Nowadays, computer is integrated in many medical organizations because it is
used by every next person.


A researcher at
Uromia University of Medical Science in Iran found that,” In general, the
medical students had no formal computer training and were unaware of the
medical research and education resources available” 5 Lotfnejadafshar
H, Habibi S, Ghaderipakdel F. Evaluation of Urmia medical students’ knowledge
of computers and informatics. Health Information Management, 2007; 4: 33-41.


In a study
conducted in Yemen, it was concluded that “despite the medical students
computer and Internet knowledge being good, their use of technology for medical
research was poor” Bin Ghouth, S. (2012).

6 International
Journal of Health and Allied Sciences: Promoting research in health sciences.
International Journal of Health & Allied Sciences, 1(1), 1. The highest
levels of competence assessed were usually for e-mail, Internet use, and file
management, and very few students were confident in specific applications such
as office productivity software or doing a Medline search 7 Azarmina P, Coombes J,
Melvin R, Miranda JJ, Samuel M, Young EJW. Assessing computer skills in a
Tanzanian medical school: An elective experience. BMC Public Health, 2004; 4:




Role of Leadership in Medical Education with regards
to IT

Educational leaders
play an important role in implementing new technologies in order to improve the
quality of medical education as well as organize training sessions for
implementation of technology.  This
leadership, with regards to integration of IT into medical education, differs
in developing countries and industrialized countries. In order to implement IT
into medical field many developing countries take steps to improve their
medical education for the future doctors.


Developed countries
invested large amount in IT for integration in medical education and made it
possible for medical students to update themselves with new researches in medical
field.IT and computer skills among the medical students are higher in developed
countries then in undeveloped countries. IT impacts in large amount in both
medical science and computer technology have gone under profound enhancement.


International organizations
such as the United Nations (UN) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have
acknowledged IT as a useful tool to address health care education in developing
countries. The United Nations’ Millennium Development Goals have articulated
the significance of using IT to address education and health issues.

There are many colleges
where IT facilities are not available.


Information and
communication technology(ICT) revolutionized our life , our ways to interact
with each other and day to day  life  and work. ICT application used in health
which includes tele medical , electronic medical records and health information
system ,  mobile health and eLearning’s
tool. ICT enhance the quality improves the health care and can act as solution
of problems. 


Health information technology (HIT)
technology which is used to enhance and secure the exchange of health
information between quality monitors, consumers and consumers etc is known as
Health information technology (HIT).
“The past decade has seen strong bipartisan support for health information
technology (HIT) as a mechanism for improving efficiency and quality, gaining
more accountability and value in purchasing, advancing the role and engagement
of consumers in prevention and health decisions, accelerating discovery and
dissemination of new treatments and therapies, and sharpening public health
monitoring and surveillance.” 8 (Jonathan
B.perlin MD phD, 2016,JAMA Volume 316 Number 16)

This technology
uses Computer Hardware and software to use, store, retrieve manipulate,
transmit and maintenance of the Health care data and information. The tools of
Health Information technology which are mostly used in area of nursing,
clinical care, pharmacy , public health, occupational therapy, medical research
and dentistry are Computers, Clinical guidelines, Formal medical terminologies
and Information and Communication Systems.

When patients
share information with doctors it helps in improving diagnosis, it also
promoting self-care and another benefit is that patient also have information
about his or her health.

Following are
examples of Health information technology (HIT):

Consumer health It

prescribing:  A
technology framework that allows doctors and physicians instead of using
handwritten or faxed notes, write and send prescriptions to a participating
pharmacy electronically.

According to

prescribing or e-prescribing (e-Rx) is the computer-based
electronic generation, transmission and filling of a medical prescription,
taking the place of paper and faxed prescriptions. E-prescribing allows
a physician, pharmacist, nurse practitioner, or physician assistant
to electronically transmit a new prescription or renewal
authorization to a community or mail-order pharmacy.”



Telehealth described by  Health Resources
and Services Administration :”The use of electronic information and
telecommunications technologies to support long-distance clinical health care,
patient and professional health-related education, public health and health


medical record systems (EHRs, and PHRs):

Following are the
central component of the health IT infrastructure:

1: A person’s
official, digital health record is Electronic Health Record (EHR) and which is
shared among multiple healthcare providers and agencies

2: The Personal
Health Record (PHR) is an electronic, universally available, lifelong resource
of health information needed by individuals to make health decisions.
Individuals own and manage the information in the PHR, which comes from
healthcare providers and the individual. The PHR is maintained in a secure and
private environment, with the individual determining rights of access. The PHR
is separate from and does not replace the legal record of any provider.

e-HIM Personal Health Record Work Group (2005)


provider order entry: a process in which medical practitioner instructions
for the treatment of patients enter electronically under his or her care.

Because of HIT it is
possible to manage patient care through the secure use and sharing of
information of patient. HIT help to reduce medical errors, diagnose problems of
heath sooner, and HIT at lower costs provide safer care.


Remote Diagnosis and Treatment of Diseases

The percentage of
people getting infected by chronic diseases is increasing rapidly day by day.
According to the report of 2012, about 117 million people were infected by one
or more chronic health diseases. (2014, October 2).

Multiple chronic
conditions among US adults: a 2012 update. Retrieved from

This persistently
increasing rate needed to be decreased. So, the Medical Experts found an
amazing solution. The RPM (Remote Patient Monitoring) technology helps doctors
diagnose and treat diseases of patients living at long distances and unable to
reach an effective medical center’s.

The RPM is very
helpful for the people living in remote areas. This technology works by:


actionable feedback: RPM devices are easy to use in daily
lives. According to the recent report of Abbott Laboratories Inc., diabetic
patients who check their glucose level frequently using glucometer, have
improved average levels of blood glucose.


the quality of care: The patients’ health conditions are communicated
through biometric data for remote monitoring by healthcare providers. In 2015
report, a clear success of RPM was shown with a remarkably lower
hospitalization and morality rates.


remote patient healthcare access: An e-ICU (Electronic-
Intensive Care Unit) is helping healthcare providers offering duties in urban
areas to reach and monitor the health conditions of patients admitted in local
hospitals of rural areas. They use RPM technology through two way cameras,
video monitors and smart alarms. All of these devices are connected to high
speed data lines. This can help detect emergency situations and control
patient’s state. E-ICU’s are decreasing death rates and cut off the average
length of an ICU stay.


About 71% of healthcare
providers in US are using this approach to connect with patients in 2017.But
most of them are using teleconferencing to help connect with the patients.
While, teleconferencing alone is not enough to get whole data and insight of
the patient’s condition. The American Journal of Medicine, researchers
discussed about how to fight with this less efficient method of chronic disease
treatment by changing their delivery model. The solution came out in the form
of RPS (Remote Presence Solution) provided with a digital stethoscope,
otoscope, and high-resolution camera which gave access to doctors to
clinical-grade patient data. This kind of treatment can be regarded as a
virtual visit helped by teleconferences.









The involvement of IT in
the field of medical science will improve the life sustainability in the
population. The lethal chronic diseases which are increasing the rate of
mortality must get treated in future by the use of new technologies and methods
of treatment involving Information Technology as discussed above.



The following
recommendations can help boost the advancement of medical science through use
of IT.

Regulating technologies for health care

Developing guidance on the structure and
usability of health information technologies.

Developing guidance and standards for medical
device labeling.

Improving adverse event reporting systems
for medical devices.













IT (Information

in support with computer based information means use of computer technology in
different fields such as medical science.


WHO (World Health

World Health Organization (WHO) is the body of the United Nations (UN)
responsible for directing and coordinating health.

(Information Communication Technology)


HIT (Health
Information Technology)

is the information technology which is applied in health and health care. It
support the information technology in health using computerize technique in
modern world.


EHRs (Electronic
Health Record)

care agencies provide us record it is the person’s official record which is
shared to multiple health care providers.


PHR (Persons
Health Record)

is the computerize record globally accessible it is long lasting resource of
health information needed by individual to make health decision.


RPM (Remote
Patient Monitoring)

patient monitoring is a technology which enable to monitor the patients outside
the clinic setting (eg: home).


E-ICU (Electronic
– Intensive Care Unit)

An Electronic
Intensive Care Unit (E-ICU) is a form of telemedicine that uses state of
the art technology to provide an additional layer of critical
care service.


1 Castro, D. (2009). Explaining
International IT Application Leadership: Health IT. SSRN Electronic
Journal. doi:10.2139/ssrn.1477486.

2 Technology,
health. (2015, March 20). Retrieved from

3 Hollander, S.
(1999). Bulletin of the medical library association. In Assessing and
enhancing medical students’ computer skills: a two-year experience (87th ed.,
pp. 67-73).

4 Aschenbrener, M.
(2008). It in medical education.

5 Lotfnejadafshar, H., Habibi, S., &
Ghaderipakdel, F. (2007). Evaluation of urmia medical students’ knowledge
of computers and informatics. Health Information Management, 4,

6 Bhojraj, S. (2012). International
Journal of Health and Allied Sciences: Promoting research in health
sciences. International Journal of Health & Allied Sciences, 1(1),
1. doi:10.4103/2278-344x.96404.

7 Samuel, M.,
Coombes, J. C., Miranda, J. J., Melvin, R.,
Young, E. J., & Azarmina, P. (2004). Assessing computer
skills in Tanzanian medical students: an elective experience. BMC
Public Health, 4(1). doi:10.1186/1471-2458-4-37.

8 Jonathan B.perlin. (2009, July
17). Electronic Health Records in Ambulatory Care ? A National Survey of
Physicians — NEJM. Retrieved from .

9 Burrington-Brown J , et al. (n.d.). Defining the personal health
record. AHIMA releases definition, attributes of consumer health record. –
PubMed – NCBI. Retrieved from