College Papers

Site Technology & Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India. Abstract

Site
selection for Artificial Groundwater Recharge of Gandhinagar district

Naishadkumar Jagdishbhai Sutariya1,
Mr. Jitendrasinh Raol2

1 PG Student, of M.E. (Civil Infrastructure Engineering),
L.D.R.P. Institute of Technology & Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India.

2Professor, L.D.R.P. Institute of Technology
& Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India.

 

Abstract

Water
is essential for the existence of all forms of life for human consumption,
agriculture and industrial. This is the reason why the man has moved and
settled only in areas of rich water resources. As the population has started
growing and unregulated usage of surface water resources has been initiated in
multiple fronts the available water is not able to cope up to human needs. So,
the man has aggressively and competitively started mining the ground water
reservoirs all over the world using all the possible and available modern
technologies. Water resources of the world in general and in India are under
heavy stress due to increased demand and limitation of available quantity.
Since urbanization, the demand for water is increasing day by day and the
sources of fresh water are depleting rapidly. Groundwater is not only an important component of the hydrological cycle
but also the most important source of water for drinking, domestic,
industrial and agricultural uses. In a densely populated country like India,
ground water resource is of extreme importance. Gujarat Government
announced that the Gandhinagar district is under the heavy stress of water
availability. all four talukas are over exploited due to the excessive
withdrawal of groundwater. So, it’s necessary to takes steps against this
problem in these study artificial groundwater recharge process is applied on
Gandhinagar district.

Artificial groundwater recharge is a process by
which the groundwater reservoir is reduced at a rate exceeding the augmentation
rate under natural conditions of replenishment. The work aims to understand the
ground water scenario from the geological point of view as geology of the area
concerned is the main control of ground water recharge, and potentiality.

This study aims that recharging the groundwater
of  and tries to overcome the scarcity of
water in Gandhinagar district.

Keywords

Water scarcity, Groundwater,
artificial recharge, techniques

Introduction

India is now facing a water situation that is
significantly worse than any that previous generations have had to face. All
Indian water bodies within and near population centres are now grossly polluted
with organic and hazardous pollutants. Interstate disputes over river waters
are becoming increasingly intense and widespread. Not a single Indian city can
provide clean water that can be consumed from the tap on a 24×7 basis. In
India, groundwater has come to occupy an enviable position in terms of meeting
55% of irrigation, 85% of rural and 50% of urban and industrial needs. Almost
90%of drinking water needs are met from groundwater.

Surface water conditions are bad. However, the
groundwater situation is even worse.

Groundwater extraction is growing and has become
increasingly unsustainable. Consequently, in many parts of the country,
groundwater levels are declining steadily. In some parts, the levels are
declining by more than one meter per year. A lack of proper wastewater
treatment from domestic, industrial, and mining sources has meant that
groundwater is being progressively contaminated by known and unknown
pollutants, increasing the potential health risks to humans and ecosystems.

The Gujarat government has declared 14 districts and
152 talukas of the state as “scarcity hit” due to deficient rains and
announced a stimulus package with fodder subsidies and out-of-turn power
connections among other measures. Every taluka in districts of Kutch,
Surendranagar, Rajkot, Jamnagar, Junagadh, Amreli, Porbandar, Bhavnagar,
Ahmedabad, Gandhinagar, Patan, Banaskantha, Mehsana and Bharuch falls under
this category.

Need
of study

§  In
Gandhinagar net annual groundwater availability is 45300.05 ha.m and  Existing Gross Ground Water Draft  for irrigation is 51272.00 ha.m, Existing
Gross Ground Water Draft for All uses is 54384.00Ha.m. on the other side,
Allocation for domestic and industrial requirement supply upto next 25 years is
4257.00 Ha.m . Net Ground Water Availability for future irrigation development
is Zero.

§  For
confined aquifers, In the year 1995-2000 water level of Gandhinagar is nearer
to 80 m, in present condition it is reaches to the 93 m.

§  For
unconfined aquifers, water level is 12m in 1995 and in present time it’s
reached upto 18m. Based on the present scenario groundwater water levels of
Gandhinagar are depleting rapidly at the Gandhinagar can cause heavy stress of
water in future.

Objectives:

§  To maximize long-term & seasonal storage of
water under the ground surface.

§  Maintaining declining ground water levels.

§  To demarcate the area and depth of groundwater
recharged by different recharge methods.

To suggest measures to enhance recharging rate
of groundwater level.

Scope
of study

The
information given by the data of Gandhinagar district, the most suitable areas
for the recharge has been found and the rise of groundwater level by the
various groundwater recharge methods, like direct methods, indirect methods and
combination methods. Due to the successive analysis of data and implementation
of the recharge methods, groundwater is rise and that water is used for the
various purpose.

Study Area

Gandhinagar
District is an administrative division of Gujarat, India, whose headquarters
are at Gandhinagar, the state capital. It was organized in 1964.

It
has an area of 649 km², and a population of 1,334,455 of which 35.02% were
urban (2001 census). The district includes Gandhinagar with three Suburbs –
Chandkheda, Motera, Adalaj. The four tehsils are – Gandhinagar, Kalol INA,
Dahegam and Mansa – and 216 villages.

Fig.1
Location of Gandhinagar District

Methodology

 

Data
Collection

Data required for the
implementation of  the project are
following:

§  Rainfall
Data

§  Existing
& past groundwater level(pre-monsoon/post-monsoon data)

§  Aquifer
system

§ 

Available
water resources

Fig
2 : Landuse Map

Fig
3: average annual Rainfall

Groundwater
scenario

It includes pre-monsoon and post-monsoon data of
groundwater level of Gandhinagar distrct it helps to understand the groundwater
level fluctuations.

Confined  aquifer

Table 1- Confined Aquifer(2000)

Location

Groundwater level

Pre-monsoon

Post-monsoon

Gandhinagar

80.63

78.38

Dahegam

68.31

65.7

Mansa

97.11

96.27

Kalol

102.08

101.025

 

Table 2- Confined Aquifer(2016)

Location

Groundwater level

Pre-monsoon

Post-monsoon

Gandhinagar

93.37

92.09

Dahegam

64.70

63.32

Mansa

102.12

99.3

Kalol

108.73

102.51

 

Unconfined
Aquifer22

Table 3-
Unconfined Aquifer(2000)

Location

Groundwater Level

Gandhinagar

13.57

Dahegam

11

Mansa

35

Kalol

42

 

Table 4 Unconfined Aquifer(2016)

Location

Groundwater level

Gandhinagar

18

Dahegam

14

Mansa

37

Kalol

36

 

Existing
aquifer System

The
studies carried out by CGWB under UNDP project, which also covered the northern
part of Gandhinagar district, a multi-aquifer system was established. A total
of 7 aquifers zones, each separated by aquiclude of varying thickness, were
identified as “A”, “B”, “C”, “D”, “E”, “F” and “G”. The aquifers being tapped
are “B and/or C” in major part of the district. However, aquifer “A” and “D”
are also being developed either in isolation or in combination of other
aquifers in the eastern and western parts respectively. It provides the
location of  aquifers so we have to
select the aquifer recharge site as per their locations.

Available
water source

Based
on this data we have to aware the location of ponds, canals and rivers. It can
helps to estimates the directly percolation of surface water.

Rivers:-
03 (Sabarmati, Meshwo, Khari)

Canals:-
01 (Narmada main canal)

Water
conservation structures:- 01( Sant sarovar)

Conclusion

In
present study, the data collected of study area and analyzed as per
requirement. It help to select suitable recharge site and recharge method. As
per the guidelines given in manual of artificial recharge to groundwater site
selection for artificial recharge is selected. mostly all area of Gandhinagar
is under water stress but At that location ,where levels of groundwater is high
are most suitable for recharge. Study area covers mostly alluvial plain
landform so, the suitable recharge methods in Gandhinagar district are
percolation tanks, injection wells and recharge shafts.

 

Acknowledgement

Apart
from the efforts of me, the success of any project depends largely on the
encouragement and guidelines of many others. I take this opportunity to express
my gratitude to the people who have been instrumental in the successful
completion of this project. I wish to express my deep sense of graduate to my
guide, Mr.Jitendrasinh raol for their able guidance and useful suggestions.
Finally, yet importantly, I would like to express heartfelt thanks to my
beloved parents for their blessings, my friends for their help and wishes for
the project.

References

1.     
A. K. Saraf & P. R. Choudhury (Nov 2010), ‘Integrated remote sensing and GIS for
groundwater exploration and identification of artificial recharge sites.”

2.       Government
of India, “Ministry of water resources (2013) Master plan for artificial recharge to ground water in India.”

3.       Satish A. Bhalerao and Tushar S.
Kelkar,(june,2013) “Artificial recharge of ground water: A novel technique for
replenishment of an aquifer with water from the land surface.”

4.     
State water data centre, Unit-2, Kherva, Mehsana

5.     
State water data centre, Sector-8, Gandhinagar