College Papers

Some of life and happiness are highly related.

Some of the quantitative
studies in the literature obtained suggests a positive correlation between
Quality of life and happiness. Loredana Elena Pro?i et al. (2015) studied the
relation between quality of life and perception of happiness among 103 people
aged between 21 and 52. Quality of life scale and Subjective happiness scale
were used in this study to gather data. Analysis of data gathered using Pearson’s
correlation and Anova suggested that There is significant relationship between
self assessed quality of life and perception of happiness among people.

Similarly a study titled The
relationship between psychological health, happiness and life quality in the
students conductd by Teymor AhmadiGatab, Nasram shayan, ,Mahshid Taheri (2011)
to understand the relationship between psycholigcal health, happiness and life
quality in students using Adult Psychological health questionnaire, Oxford
hapiness inventory and WHOQOL BREF among 165 students concluded that there is a
direct relationship between happiness and quality of life.

In certain other studies such
as the one to be mentioned the understanding of quality of life was further
broken down to its components and individually assessed with happiness. Toulabi,
Zeinab & Raoufi, Maryam & Allahpourashraf, Yasan (2013) Investigated
the relationship between teacher’s happiness and the components of working life
quality. The study was conducted among 284 teachers using Oxford Happiness
Inventory and Working life quality questionnaire. In the t- test conducted it
was found that there is a direct relationship between the amount of happiness
among high school teachers of Ilam and the components of working life quality
such as payment, management support, security, professional development
opportunity and involvement in decision making while there is no relationship
between promotion opportunity and happiness among high school teachers

Another study which were on
similar lines was the one titled Studying the Association of Quality of Life and
Happiness among University Students by Purreza Abolghasem (2016) which
examined the quality of life , happiness and some demographic variables such as
education, gender and marital status among 252 students of various medical
universities in Iran. Using Oxford happiness questionnaire and SF36 and data
analysis methods such as Anova, Pearson’s correlation and Spearman’s
correlation it was found that students’ quality of life and happiness are
highly related. Also, the happiness of students are affected by their interest
in the major of the study they are pursuing but not by other factors such as
age, gender and marital status.

There were also some studies
which appeared to be in contrary with the findings of the ones mentioned above.
Riza Gokler, Ugur Gurgan & Nuray Tastan (2015) investigated the
relationship  between quality of school
life and happiness among university students on 326 students using Scale for
quality of school life and Scale for oxford happiness. Data was  analyzed 
y using t- test, ANOVAs, Anacova, Multiple regression and findings
showed that Student’s views about their quality of life were not a significant
predictor of their happiness as the students’ happiness is independent of their
quality of school life.

In an Empirical review by
Veenhoven R (2000) on Quality-Of-Life And Happiness: Not Quite The Same
exploring the relation of quality of life and happiness with regard to quality
of living environment and quality of performance concluded that Happiness is in
concordance with several aspects of quality of life such as environmental
qualities like freedom and personal abilities like autonomy. Yet more of these
always not give happiness. Happiness do not come with certain qualities like
state- welfare of personal intelligence. Something deemed good may also reduce

Similarly the study by  Dalia Susniene, Algirdas Jurkauskas (2009)
titled The concepts of quality of life and happiness – Correlation and differences
tries to identify how different and how related the concept of quality of life
and happiness are using Comparitive studies, review of published article and
empirical review. This study concluded that Quality of life and concept of
happiness correlates but are not the same. Person having quality of life index
as high can also feel unhappy and person having low quality of life can
experience happiness also. The latter part of conclusion lead to a suggestion
that in order to understand and explain the multi dimensions of quality of life
further studies both qualitative and quantitative are to be conducted.

There were also certain other
studies reviewed which gave more insight regarding the concept of Quality of
life. Yang zhang, Bo Qu, Shisi Lun,  et
al. (2012) assesed the quality of life along with exploring the influencing
factors of quality of life among 1686 medical students. In the data gathered
and analyzed using WHOQOL – BREF and t-test, Anova and Student – Newman Keuls
test respectively it was inferred that the year of study was an important
indicator of quality of life. Adding to it, Students from clinical medicine
reported higher scores in psycholological health and social relationships
comparing to other fields. Gender, interest in the area of study, confidence in
career development and physical exercise seemed to influence the Quality of
life of medical students in different domains.

Benedicte Kleiveland, Gerd
Karin Natvig and Randi Jepsen (2015) in their study Stress, sense of coherence
and quality of life among Norwegian nurse students tried to investigate if
nurse students’ experience of stress differ among clinical practice in nursing
homes and medical/surgical wards, whether the sense of coherence is associated
with quality of life and if sense of coherance acts as a moderator in the
relation between stress and quality of life. This study was conducted among 227
nurse students using Impact of event scale, Quality of life scale and Sense of
cohereance scale. The study concluded along the lines that Clinical practices
were found to be more stressful, Sense of coherance was found to be associated
with quality of life and also it acted as a moderator between stress and
quality of life.

Percieved stress and quality
of life of pharmacy students in University of Ghana,  a study conducted by Opku- Acheampong et al.
(2017) tried to To investigate the relationship between stress and quality of
life of 154 undergraduate pharmacy students using WHOQOL BREF and it was found
that there is a negative correlation between stress and various domains of
quality of life.

This particular study about
happiness gave more understanding about the familial factors contributing to
adolescents. Rossarin Soottipong Gray et al. (2013) inorder to explore the
family and non family factors contributing to happiness among adoloscent
students conducted a study titled Happiness Among Adolescent Students in
Thailand on 905 students. A structured questionnaire was developed by the
researchers using which it was found that Family factors such as Sufficient
time spent together, high level of love, connectedness, two parent family
correlated with happiness. Father figure seemed to play an important role as
those living with an unmarried mother family were unhappiest. Also Non family
factors such as school attendance, high self esteen, high economic status,
regular participation in extracurricular activities correlated with happiness.

When it
comes to hardiness and happiness, certain studies suggests happiness can be
influenced by hardiness. This study by Abdollah A et 2014 tries to investigate
te role of hardiness as a mediator between perceived stress and happiness by
using the questionnaire Personal Views Survey, Perceived Stress Scale and
Oxford Happiness Inventory on 252 nurses. The results analyzed using structural
equation modeling suggests that Hardiness is partially mediated between
perceived stress and happiness among nurses. Additionally the study also
suggests that nurses with low levels of perceived stress were more likely to
report greater hardiness and happiness also that nurses with high levels of
hardiness were more likely to report happiness.

K.M et al. in 2011 tried to investigate the development of a model hardiness
training program to determine whether perceived stress could be reduced and
hardiness could be increased among college students. With 27 college students
in experimental group and 29 in control, the data collected was analysed using
t test and garnered the result that the use of a hardiness training program can
be effective in increasing hardiness and decreasing perceived stress levels in
students and may have a positive impact on them.

A study
was conducted by Arezoo tarimoradi
in 2014 to compare the degree of hardiness and public
health between Iranian and English women university students. The samples 60
Iranian and English women whose data was collected using Hardiness scale and
GHQ and analysed by t test and correlation method lead to the inference that
there is no relationship between hardiness and public health but the degree of
difference is meaningless. Additionally the degree of public health in English
women is higher than that in Iranian women and the degree of hardiness in
English women is not higher than that in Iranian women.

Nguyen et al. in 2012 conducted a study on 1024 business students to
understand the direct and indirect effects of
psychological hardiness in learning on business students’ perceptions of
Quality of College Life (QCL), where indirect effects are mediated by learning
motivation. Quality of college life (QCL) scale, Psychological hardiness in
learning scale, Learning motivation scale, Functional value of business
education scale were the scales used and analysis was done using Structural
Equation Modelling (SEM). The psychological hardiness in learning and learning
motivation was found to have statistically significant positive impacts on
students’ perceived Quality of College Life.

In a study conducted by Nazmiye Civitcia and As?m Civitcia in 2015 on Social
Comparison Orientation, Hardiness and Life Satisfaction in Undergraduate
Students tried to examine changes on hardiness and life satisfaction in terms
of social comparison orientation in Turkish undergraduate students and to
investigate the moderator effect of social comparison orientation on the
relationship between hardiness and life satisfaction. In the study conducted on
326 students, IOWA- Netherlands Comparison Orientation Measure, Personal View
Survey III-R and Satisfaction with Life Scale were administered where the data
was analysed using Multiple regresson and MANCOVA. The results showed that the
students having a low social comparison orientation had more hardiness and life
satisfaction than the students having a high social comparison orientation.
Also, the social comparison orientation did not moderate the relationship
between hardiness and life satisfaction.

The work of Feild H.S. el al. in 2004 on Student Learning Motivation
and Psychological Hardiness: Interactive Effects on Students’ Reactions to a
Management Class. It tried to find out if simultaneously
considering the combined effects of students’ learning motivation and
psychological hardiness can increase understanding of the learning experience
and its impact on important learning outcomes and if the relationship between
learning motivation and learning outcomes would be moderated by individuals’
psychological hardiness. School-Related Hardiness Measure and Learning
motivation Scale were administered on 603 students. The data was analyzed using
ANOVA and HSD tests. The study found out that the joint consideration of
students’ initial learning motivation and hardiness interact to influence post
learning motivation. Simultaneously considering the combined effects of
students’ learning motivation and psychological hardiness can increase
understanding of the learning experience and its impact on important learning