College Papers

Work-family the two domains, on the strength of

Work-family conflict is a advancing for modern society, in a huge majority of men and women tells that work interferes with their family responsibilities (Glavin & Schieman, 2012). Work–family conflict refers to an ill-assorted or incompatibility between the work and family role demands. Therefore, the work-family relationship has been creating as a bi-directional construct where work roles impacts on family roles, work can reinforce family well-being and positive aspects of family life can fix into work place. Then, a concept of work-life combination should depict more flexible boundaries where individuals have greater influence on the definition of their work and non work lives. The choice of plan is to handle the work-family conflict is dependent on the recognized differences between the two domains, on the strength of the borders, which are resolved by their permeability and flexibility (Saucan et al., 2015). Work-family conflict collects widespread attention in modern society beyond human resources management, huge researches in this area different studies report inconsistent and even contradictory findings on the effects and intensity of work family conflict. Additionally, the overlap in time and place between traditional family and work roles may also introduce new opportunities for work-family conflict to manifest in people’s everyday lives (Yili Liu & Lina Zhou., 2017). Work-family conflict is defined as the pressure produced by different demands from work and family domains, where the pressure from both work and family domains are illmatched in some regard (Restubog et al, 2011). Work-family conflict is started because of the different work and family demographic trends in the United States and around the globe, including growing numbers of mothers with children under 18 in the labor force; the rapid rise in elder care demands due to an aging population; and an increase in men’s involvement with family care giving demands, particularly in developed Western countries (Kossek & Malaterre, 2013). Work-family conflict affects most of the society. Even without married people and those without children will complain having some work-family conflict as all individuals (Casper, Weltman, & Kwesiga, 2007). Work-life conflict is a part of work-family conflict image the reality that the work role may interfere with family’ other personal life events and interests. With the family role (Kossek, 2016). While for many employees work-family conflict is a key factor use the term “work-life conflict” to show the many extra non-work demands in individual’s lives that are not confined to those involving the family (Wilson & Baumann, 2015). A real number of work family research based on a conflict situation, where the demands of work and family are observed as opposed because of conflicts caused by time, behavior, or strain (Ruppanner, 2013). In recent years, researchers differently measured work-family conflict first, it was measured in a simpler way, in which they measuring the conflict that occurs when work is interfered with family just now, researchers starts to identify the double nature of work–family conflict by measuring both possible directions the interference of work with family and also of family with work (Hytti et al., 2015). In other countries some researchers indicated that work–family conflict could positively affect turnover intention. Researchers also tell that there were neither direct nor indirect relationships between work–family conflict and turnover intention (Armstrong et al., 2015). Both work and family responsibilities is a problem for many workers in these days, whether employed or self-employed. Workers have different roles in the work and family domains. When these roles are mutually incompatible in some way, a form of inter-role conflict arises this may take the form of work-to-family conflict or family-to-work conflict (Annink et al., 2016). Workers especially women and/or parents often believe that self-employment will ease the pressure of combining work and family Self-employment enables workers to combine income, flexibility and control over their work and childcare (Sullivan and Meek 2012). The importance of preventing WFC is acknowledged by the European Union, who sets guidelines for support. However, although governments are giving increasingly attention to reconciling paid employment and parenting, research shows those arrangements for the self-employed lag behind those for employees and that they differ across European countries (Annink et al. 2015). They originate that if the job demands are high it create conflicts between work and family life and they are negatively associate to work–life balance. However, they also found that the level of job control hardly varies among the self-employed. This is not unpredicted, as job control is related to individual’s management and performance, which can be seen as inherent to selfemployment (Nordenmark et al. 2012). The life-course aspects provide a unique framework and concepts such as historical time, transitions, or linked lives to examine work-family conflict. Contemporary workers are less probable to spend their whole career and regularly advance in one organization, and feel secure in their jobs than workers from previous decades. Yet they are more likely to customize their timing of retirement, pursue flexible work arrangements such as reduced workload and timework, and seek work-family balance (Greenhaus & Kossek, 2014). One main methodological issue is construct overlap, such as the work-family conflict and work-life conflict issues noted earlier. Work-family conflict and work-family balance are also closely comparable concepts. While there seems to be a agreement between scholars that work-family balance is distinct from work-family conflict, empirical evidence is scarce (Greenhaus & Allen, 2010). Neuroticism had the strongest positive relationship with both work-to-family and familyto-work conflict among the big five personality characteristics. While agreeableness and conscientiousness were negatively associated with work-family conflict, extraversion and openness to experience were not (Kossek, Ruderman, Braddy, and Hannum 2012). Work-Family Conflict is an important line of inquiry in organizational behavior and human resource management research. The topic is relevant to the computing and communication field not only because modern communication technologies allow for more integration of work and family roles than ever before but because recent advances in computing technology offer new ways to respond to and understand work-family conflict (Maertz & Boyar 2016). For all peoples work and family are two important domains, work family conflict is experienced when there is conflict between pressures in other domain. Work family conflict can be classified into time- and strain based categories, along with others. Specifically, the time devoted to and the strain produced by work make it difficult to fulfill requirements of family and vice versa (Tausczik & Pennebaker, 2010). Work family conflict has been empirically linked with employees’ job and life dissatisfaction, poor physical and psychological health, and rising voluntary turnover rates and work stress (Cheng et al., 2015). While it is obviously of interest to know whether inter-role conflicts are connected with the health, it is of equal importance to explore potential antecedents of work and family conflicts in employees with spinal cord injury and their partners with care giving duty. There is two specific aspects that may have a role in the presence of conflicts, namely the amount of engagement in productive activities (e.g., paid work, care giving) and socioeconomic circumstances (e.g., level of income, education) Conflicts between work and family life probably result from an interplay between one’s own and one ‘s partners ‘ participation in productive activities. For instance, the participation of both members of a couple in paid works may exacerbate inter-role conflicts as both have less time resources for family life (Fekete et al., 2017). Significant effort has gone toward trying to understand the antecedents and role of work family conflict. Research shows individual attributes and experience effect perception of work family conflict, with two significant implications for the dynamics of work family conflict. Different individuals may respond to the same work family conflict differently, and individuals may react to the same work family conflict differently over time through their attempts to cope with work family conflict and their changing situations (Carr et al., 2014). Percentage of working women is increasing in day to day life, which is turn enhances the responsibility of women in both private and outside world. So naturally the conflict appears, when they try to balance between work and family. If these roles are not managed, it starts to work family conflict which creates stress between employees. Employees try to satisfy the increasing work role and as well as family responsibilities too. Work family conflict is related to stress and psychological strain (Poelmans as cited in Ragles, 2016). Most researches in the area of work family conflict and organizational role stress is conveying in various group of occupations via students, teachers and police. Role stress influences the job satisfaction among the employees (Armstrong et al., 2015). Types of work-family conflict. Work family conflict can exist in two ways work can interfere with family (WIF) and family can interfere with work (FIW). Carlson et al. (1998) suggested six dimensions of work-family conflict. WIF and FIW each have three sub dimensions time, strain, and behavior-based types of conflict. Time-based conflict happens when the time demands of one role are ill-matched with those of another. The second form is strain-based conflict, starts when strain in one domain influence with the other domain. The third form, behavior-based conflict, happens when behavior pattern allocate to one domain are arrogate in another (Aisyah et al., 2011). Time based conflict. Time is an important aspect that has been linked with conflict (Greenhaus as cited in fang, 2017). He reported time-based conflict as numerous roles may challenge for a person’s time. Time used on activities within one role generally cannot be faithful to activities within another role. Therefore, in the same time period an employee cannot satisfy both roles, because they both influencing each other time-based conflict is stable with excessive work time and schedule conflict, as well as role overload there is two type of timebased conflict. First, demands of time linked with one role’s membership may make it physically impossible to obey with expectations arising from another, for example an employee might have a lot of work at workplace or stay late at work for completing a project, therefore that thing make it physically awkward to spend time with the family (Tang et al, 2015). Second, time demands may also create an obsession with one role even if an individual is physically attempting to meet another role’s demands (Huang et al., 2012). For instance one employee has a big project to complete and the same time he comes home to spend time with the family, and just thinking about the project (Matthews et al., 2011). Strain-based conflict. A second type of work-family conflict happens when the strain from one domain becomes incompatible to safe the requirements of another domain. Strain may decrease personal resources that are needed for role responsibilities, for instance when there is fatigue of work experiencing by a person, because of long working hours may he shift that to the family domain and reduce his/her energy for family responsibilities (Ragles & Sakthivel, 2016). Strain that we practice in one role may span and starts to influence with other role for example if one become stressed of having child which is sick, it affects the attentiveness level at work place. If one practice occupational role conflict, role ambiguity at work and overloaded of work then he may face work stress at work place (Cowlishaw et al., 2012). Behavior based conflict. Behavior based conflict is a third type of work-family conflict. It is start when person can’t balance behavior in order to meet the demands of two different role behaviors. That is true that behavior in one domain influence the performance in other domain. An immediate form of this conflict is when a person has difficulty in combining a logical and managerial attitude at work with a sensitive and shared attitude with the family (Frone, 2005). According to Bellavia and Frone, (2005), males are high on facing work-family conflict then females, while females are high on facing Family-to-work conflict then males. There is difference between energy-base and strain-base conflict. Theories of work-family conflict. Numerous theories have been used to explain the process that how work-family conflict linked to other variables. Grant-Vallone and Donaldson (2001) stated express that research that examines work family conflict has advanced over the last decade by the development of theoretical models, empirical studies, and organizational sponsored work-family initiatives. Role conflict theory. The role conflict theory states that experiencing doubtfulness or conflict within a role will result in an undesirable state. Because conflicting demands between roles (e.g., time, incompatible behaviors) conduct to personal conflict, it becomes harder to perform each role successfully (Grandey & Cropanzano as cited in Ashley, 2017). “Role strain or trouble in meeting role demands is assured” and a person “must frequently makes role decisions and agreements in order to meet role requirement. Although some authors have used role conflict theory and role theory as evidently replaceable frameworks, there are definite differences between them. The role conflict theory outlines a deeper and more specific framework that provides a richer understanding of various work-family conflict forms, directions, and dimensions; these details are not presented in other theoretical frameworks. In addition, researchers (e.g., Duxbury, Higgins, & Mills, 1992). Claimed that to understand workfamily conflict both directions (work interference with family and family interference with work) must be examine. Spillover theory. Spillover theory describes work effect in family life. Positive spillover is declared when the fulfillment, passion, happiness, and refreshment an individual has at work crosses over into positive feelings and energy at home or when positive satisfaction, energy, and happiness from home crosses over to a positive experience at work (Sthapit & Bjork, 2017). Negative spillover from work to family is express when the problems, conflicts, or energy at work has tense and engaged an individual, making it difficult to participate in family life effectively and positively (Young & Rim, 2017). Of course, negative spillover from family to work (e.g., divorce, problems with children, or the death of a close friend or family member) can also be damaging. Gender role theories. This theory find to explain gender differences in work family life. Three of the familiar gender theories that represent three different sets of assumptions are the biological influences, childhood socialization processes, and social structural factors in society. According to Way (1991), “biological influences theory advance that sex differences in attitudes, abilities, and temperaments are innate and that these innate differences cause males and females to be differentially suited for certain work and family roles”. According to the childhood socialization theories, formed and empirical personality differences lead males and females to choose and even prefer different social roles. Role theory. Another framework for exploring work-family conflict is the general role theory. It introduce to a set of behaviors that have socially agreed-upon functions and an accepted code of norms. Normal roles include spouse, parent, manager, employee, church member, student, friend, and more. Roles can represent relationships or functions, and they are necessary for the achievement of goals and the maintenance of group unity. A role set is the entire mixture of roles a person occupies or plays at one time. Strain can occur when there are conflicting and/or competing demands made by two or more roles held by one person. Role theory conveys that multiple roles can lead to stressors (work overload and inter role conflict) and, in turn, to symptoms of strain (Britton, 2017). Work overload raise to expectations that can lead to an increase in workload and possible feelings of overload within the work or non work domains. Inter role conflict refers primarily to the conflict between the roles. As mentioned previously, role theory has a much larger and general scope regarding work-family conflict as compared to the role conflict theory. Although one portion of the role theory focuses on role conflict, it does not provide the detailed description of the related components as found in the role conflict theory. Interesting, some authors occasionally infer that role conflict theory is one construct within the broader role theory framework. Identity theory. “Identity theory support that individuals seek to build desired images of themselves, and anything that blocks creation of these directed images represents a threat to self identification. Because conflict between work and family roles constitutes an obstacle to goals of self-fulfillment, threats resulting from work-family conflict likely lead to job stress” (Gruber & Macmillan, 2017). Introduce that work-family conflict represents a, “risk or obstacle to selfidentification because it represents the degree to which work activities are blocked or reserved by pressures and responsibilities at home and vice versa” . People are threatened when obstacles to activities that have potential implications for identity damage their self-image. Identity theory differs from role conflict theory and role theory because its basic property is much broader than its use in this specific context. There are various psychological functions that are served by developing a sense of identity (i.e., basic need for self-esteem or selfenhancement; basic need for self-efficacy which is related to the sense of personal competence and control; and it allows for the development of self-consistency or coherence). There are many other constructs that can threaten or impede an individual’s ideal or perceived personal identity, role conflict or work-family conflict being just a few